December 2016 Māori Law Review

Review of Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 – Select Committee report on Bill – Whiringa-ā-rangi 2016

The Māori Affairs select committee of the House of Representatives has issued its report on Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill. The Bill proposes significant reform to the law relating to Māori land.

Download the Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill as reported back with commentary (25 Whiringa-ā-rangi 2016 November).

Overview

The Government introduced a Bill to reform the law relating to Māori land. The House of Representatives referred the Bill to a Select Committee. After receiving and hearing submissions the Māori Affairs select committee has issued its report on the Bill.

Background

An independent panel of experts earlier recommended new Māori land legislation to replace Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993. The Panel considered that the Māori Land Court's current role in the management and utilisation of Māori land can be scaled back in favour of greater final decision-making by those with governance roles for Māori land. The Panel's recommendation was that decision-making about governance and use of Māori land should be by engaged owners. Safeguards should remain for disposals of Māori land. Further, duties and responsibilities of those with governance roles should be aligned with the general law.

The Government subsequently considered the Panel's views and developed more detailed proposals.

In February 2015 the Minister for Māori Development appointed an external advisory group to help to progress law reform of the governance and management of Māori land. An exposure draft Bill was subsequently released for public consultation.

The Waitangi Tribunal conducted an urgent inquiry into aspects of the proposed law reform. It issued its report in March 2016.

The Government introduced a Bill into the House of Representatives in April 2016.

See (2016) June Māori LR, (2016) March Māori LR(2016) February Māori LR, (2015) May Māori LR(2015) March Māori LR, (2014) April Māori LR and (2013) May Māori LR for further background information about this law reform process.

Discussion

The Committee, by majority, recommends the Bill is progressed and passed with the amendments suggested in its report.

A minority report from other members of the Committee (members on the Committee from the Labour, Green, and New Zealand First Parties) recommends the Bill not progress.

The two explanations provided by the majority and minority members illustrate a number of ongoing tensions in striking new settings for law reform in this area. Crucial among these at a practical level is the interest shown by parties in learning more about how the proposed Māori Land Service will operate. At a fundamental level some people remain unconvinced major law reform is necessary while those promoting this reform programme consider it will unlock many existing constraints on the effective utilisation of Māori land.

The majority members of the Committee have proposed a long lead-in time after enactment before the Bill would enter into force to give those affected time to prepare for the changes.

The detailed changes recommended by the Committee's report are not set out here, but can be seen in the version of the Bill reported by the Committee.

What is set out here is the commentary comprising the Committee's report (first in te reo Māori and then in English):

Te Pire mō Te Ture Whenua Māori

Pire Kāwanatanga

126—2

E ai ki te pūrongo a te Komiti Whiriwhiri Take Māori

Ngā takinga kōrero

Tūtohutanga

Kua tirotirohia e te Komiti Whiriwhiri Take Māori te Pire mō Te Ture Whenua Māori, ā, ko tana tūtohu kia whakaaetia me ngā menemana e whakaaturia ana.

Kōrero whakataki

Ko tā tēnei pire he whakakore me te whakakapi i te ture onāianei e pā ana ki te whenua Māori, Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993.

E whakatakoto ana tēnei pire i te aronga hou e āhei ake ai ngā ariki whenua Māori ki te whakamahi i ō rātou ake whenua mā te whakamana i a rātou ki te tuku whakatau mō rātou anō, e tautokona hoki e tētahi ratonga whenua Māori e aro ana ki ngā ariki whenua. Me te aha, he pupuri me te whakakaha i ngā whakamarutanga onāianei mō te pupuri i te whenua Māori hei painga mō ngā whakatipuranga o muri mai (he taonga tuku iho) nā runga i tō rātou whakapapa.

Kei roto tonu i te Ture onāianei ngā whakaritenga nō ngā tau neke atu i te 100 tau, ki te Native Land Act 1909. E kapi ana i ēnei whakaritenga ngā take pēnei i te rūri me te rīhi. I tua atu i te whakatikatika i te pou tarāwaho ā-ture, ā-whakahaere hoki e pā ana ki te whenua Māori, ka whakamōhou katoa te pire me te whakahou i te āhua tuhituhi me te āhua o te ture.

Ngā mātāpono matua

Ko tētahi o ngā mātāpono matua o te pire ko te tikanga Māori hei tūāpapa i roto i ngā whakatau mō te whenua Māori. E whakaae ana te komiti ki ngā tohutohu mō te whakauru mai i ngā tikanga, arā ka whakahau kē tēnā i te āhua o ngā uara me ngā mātāpono e pā ana ki te whenua Māori. E whakapono ana mātou he pai ake kia waiho ēnei mā ngā whānau, hapū, iwi hoki e whakarite. Hei tauira, i raro i te pire, mā te tikanga Māori e whakatau nō wai ake te whenua Māori, ngā hononga tuku iho, me te whakarite i tētahi tauira whakatau wenewene.

Kei roto i te whiti 3 o te pire ngā mātāpono matua katoa ka tūāpapa i te pou tarāwaho ture hou mō te whenua Māori. Kei te tautoko mātou i ēnei mātāpono, ka mutu kāore i te whakahuahia anō i konei.

Whakamārama

He tino whānui ngā whitiwhiti kōrero i roto i ngā mahi waihanga i tēnei pire, tae atu ki te whakaatu whānui i tētahi tauira kia pai ai te tuku tāpae kōrero mai, ā, he mea rerekē tēnei. I whakaaroarohia ngā kōrero o ngā tāpaetanga kōrero, me ngā pūrongo maha, ngā whitiwhiti kōrero, me ngā hui, ā, ko te putanga o te pire i tukuna ki te Whare i ahu mai i ngā tauira 16 i roto i te 30 marama. I whakahētia te tukanga whitiwhiti kōrero e ētahi kaitāpae kōrero i runga i tō rātou whakapono kāore i tino whai wā ki te whakaaroaro i ngā huringa e marohitia ana, ā, me ngā pānga o ēnei ki ngā ariki o ngā whenua Māori.

I ahu mai te pire i tētahi arotake ā-mātāpono tuatahi o te ture onāianei e tētahi rōpū arotake motuhake i te tau 2012. I whakatūhia te rōpū nā ngā tono i ngā tau i muri mai i te 1990 kia whakahoutia te Ture 1993. I rongo mātou i te wā o te tukanga tāpaetanga kōrero i whakahauhia te rōpū ki te arotake i te Ture, engari ko tāna tūtohu kē he ture hou tērā e hiahiatia ana. E ai ki tā te rōpū i tana pūrongo whakamutunga,

Ko te āhua o te Ture Whenua Māori, ko tōna aronga matua ko te Kōti Whenua Māori me tōna mana, kāore e tino ū pai ki tētahi pou tarāwaho hou e aro kē ki te tiaki i te whenua Māori me te whakamana i ngā ariki o ngā whenua Māori me tā rātou tuku whakatau.

Ahakoa ka mau tonu i te pire te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka whakarerekēhia te āhua o tōna mana, me te whakawhiti i ētahi o āna mahi ki te Ratonga Whenua Māori hou. I roto i te Ture 1993 ko te kōti te aronga nui, e marohi kē ana ngā whakahoutanga i tēnei pire kia whakawhitia te aronga ā-ture ki te whenua ake me ngā tika, mana hoki o ngā ariki whenua. E whakapono ana ētahi o mātou ka whakaputaina e te whānuitanga o ngā rerekētanga he rītaha ki te whakamahinga o te whenua, ā, ko te mutunga atu pea he tupe i ngā pānga o ngā ariki whenua.

Te rahinga me te hanganga o te ture

E whakaae ana mātou ki te maha o ngā kaitāpae kōrero e kī ana rātou he nui rawa, he matatini rawa, ā, ka uaua te whai mārama. E 6 ōna Wāhanga, 12 ōna Pukapuka Āpiti.

E whai ana te pire ki te whakatakoto i te ture mō te whenua Māori, me te whakamana i ngā ariki whenua Māori, me ētahi atu e whai pānga ana ki te ture.

Kia mārama ake, kia māmā ake ai te whakamahi a ngā ariki whenua Māori i ngā whakaritenga hou, he mea waiwai tētahi wā whakaratarata. E kōrerohia ana ā muri ake, me āta whakamārama ngā whakaritenga hou ki ngā kaiwhakamahi i mua i te whakamanatanga o te ture hou.

Ka puta i te pire e toru ngā Ture hou

Ko te koronga kia wehea te pire ki ngā wāhanga ture e toru i mua i te whakamanatanga, e whakaata ana i ngā wāhanga matua o ngā rerekētanga.

  • Ko te pou tarāwaho ture whānui mō te whenua Māori, kei roto i Ngā Wāhanga 1–9 me Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 1–4 o te pire, ka noho ko Te Ture Whenua Māori.

  • Ko ngā whakaritenga ā-whakahaere me ngā whakaritenga whakahaerenga ā-ture mō te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōti Pīra Māori, kei Ngā Wāhanga 10–15 me Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 5–7 o tēnei pire, ka noho ko Te Ture Kōti Whenua Māori.

  • Ko ngā rerekētanga o muri mai me ētahi atu ki te ture, kei te Wāhanga 16 me Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 8–12 o tēnei pire, ka noho Te Ture Whenua Māori (Ngā Whakakorenga me Ngā Menemana).

He aronga tika tēnei ki a mātou. Ka noho wehe ngā Ture matua e rua–e whakarite ana i te ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, me ngā whakaritenga kōti–me te ārai kia kaua ēnei e pokea e ngā rerekētanga o muri mai ki ētahi atu ture. Ki ō mātou whakaaro he tika kia noho ngā whakaritenga ā-kōti ki tētahi Ture motuhake mai i te ture e pā ana ki te whenua Māori, i te mea ka ahu mai te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori i ētahi atu ture maha.

Te kaupapa whakahou whānui ake

Nō tētahi kaupapa whānui ake te pire o ngā mahi whakahou i ngā whakaritenga onāianei mō te whenua Māori. He whakatakoto mai i te kaupapa mō ngā whakaritenga hou kei te waihanga tonutia. Heoi, kāore mātou, me ngā kaitāpae kōrero, i te tino mōhio ka pēhea ake te aromātai i te mahi a te kaupapa hou, nō reira he pērā anō ō mātou whakaaro mō te whakatau i ō mātou whakaaro mō te pire.

Te Ratonga Whenua Māori

Ina koa, ka whakarato te pire i ngā mahinga maha ka whakahaerehia e te Ratonga Whenua Māori hou. Ka riro mā tēnei ratonga, e waihanga tonutia ana, ētahi o ngā mahi e kawea ana e te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ka whakarato tēnei whakahaere hou i ngā ratonga tino hira mā ngā ariki whenua Māori, tae atu ki te:

  • tautoko i ngā ariki o ngā whenua ki te tuku whakatau, te whakatū whakaritenga whakahaere, me ngā whakaritenga tauatanga

  • whakahaere i te ratonga whakatau wenewene ka whakaratohia i raro i te ture

  • pupuri i ngā pūranga kōrero o ngā ariki whenua Māori, me te whakarato i ngā ratonga mōhiohio hāngai, rēhita hoki

  • āwhina ki te hāpai i te whakamahitanga o ngā whenua Māori.

Ngā mahi hāngai kia pai ake te whakamahi i ngā whenua Māori

Kei te kimi huarahi i tēnei wā ki te turaki i ngā tauārai maha kei mua i te aroaro o ngā ariki whenua Māori, kia pai ake tā rātou whakamahi i ō rātou whenua.

Kei roto i ēnei mahi ngātahi ko te rapu rongoā mō ngā whenua mauraka me ngā rori pepa; hei whakapai ake i ngā pānga o te Public Works Act 1981 ki te whenua korehere Māori; me te whakapai haere anō i te Local Government (Rating) Act 2002 kia ōrite ai te āhua o te wāriu me te whakahau utu reiti ki te whenua korehere Māori. He maha ngā tari kāwanatanga kei roto i ēnei mahi, tae atu ki Te Puni Kōkiri, Te Tāhū o Te Ture, me Toitū te Whenua. Kua whakamōhiohia atu te komiti kāore anō kia whakatauhia he rā hei whakaoti i ēnei mahi haere ngātahi.

He pēhea te hāngai o te pire ki te kaupapa whānui

Ko tētahi uauatanga i pā mai ki ā mātou mahi tirotiro i te pire, ko ngā āhuatanga hāngai o te kaupapa whakahou e mahia haere tonutia ana, nō reira kāore anō kia wātea mai ngā mōhiohio āmiki. I whakapau wā mātou i roto i ā mātou kōrerorero mō te pire ki te uiui i ngā āpiha ka pēhea te mahi a te Ratonga Whenua Māori, āhea ka whakatūhia, he aha tōna hanganga me te āhua o te whai kaimahi, ā, he pēhea te rawaka o te whai pūtea.

I tukuna mai ngā whakamārama whaitake, ā, ka tāpirihia mai ēnā me tēnei pūrongo. Ko te ngako, i whakamāramahia mai ki a mātou:

  • e whakatakoto ana te pire i ngā āhuatanga taketake o ngā mahi a te Ratonga Whenua Māori (pēnei i ngā ratonga ki ngā ariki whenua, me te āwhina ki te whakatau wenewene)

  • me anga whakamua te pire i te tuatahi, kia taea ā-ture te whakatū te whakahaere hou

  • kua tīmata kē ngā mahi hoahoa taketake mō te Ratonga Whenua Māori, he nui ngā whitiwhiti kōrero mō tēnei me ngā ariki whenua puta noa i te motu mō ngā ratonga e hiahia ana rātou

  • ko tētahi tohu nui ko ngā whakatau mō te mahere pakihi mō te ratonga hou hei te Paengawhāwhā 2017; e whakapono ana mātou ko ngā pūtea kua tukuna kētia mō ngā mahi hoahoa taketake e tohu ana i te pūmau o te Kāwanatanga ki te tuku pūtea ā tōna wā, ā, kei te mōhio hoki mātou kāore anō kia whakatauhia te pūtea haere tonu hei whakatinana

  • nā te wā mō te pire he tino roa mai i te wā ka whakamanahia hei ture ki te rā tīmatanga whakamutunga o te 1 Whiringa-ā-nuku 2018; ka taea ngā āhuatanga tino hira o te Ratonga Whenua Māori te whakatū me te mahi hei te whakamanatanga o te Ture. E mōhio ana ētahi o mātou me rawaka te whai pūtea kia taea tika ai te whakatinana.

  • ka whakaurua haerehia i muri mai i roto i te rima tau ngā whakarākeitanga ki te ratonga, otirā ērā wāhanga e pā ana ki te ao rorohiko; ko te whāinga kia pakari te tauira, kia hāngai ki ngā hiahia o ngā reanga o āpōpō

  • kāore i te tino mārama i tēnei wā kei hea te ratonga e pā ana ki ngā tari onāianei, ka ahu mai rānei ana kaimahi i hea; ahakoa me whiwhi te ratonga i ngā mōhiotanga ā-whakahaere onāianei, mōhiotanga whakapapa hoki, me neke hoki te wairua whakahaere ki te rapu rongoā whātahitanga kē mō ngā ariki whenua. Kei te mōhio mātou ka tūpono raruraru te whakatūtanga o te Ratonga Whenua Maori i te whakahounga o te hanganga o Te Tāhū o Te Ture nā te ngaro o nga mōhiotanga ā-whakahaere.

Ko te tūmanako kia tino mārama ake te “papatohu” mō te wā me ngā whakaritenga mō te ratonga. Engari, kei te mārama mātou ki te take kāore e tukuna mai kia tutuki rā anō te pou tarāwaho ā-ture i roto i te pire, ā, kia tutuki hoki i te Kāwanatanga ētahi atu whakataunga.

He maha anō ā mātou pātai he aha ngā mahi e whāia ana kia taea e ngā ariki o ngā whenua Māori te turaki ngā tauārai onāianei, ā, āhea nei ka kitea ngā rongoā. I kīia mai mātou nā ētahi whakaritenga o te pire ka māmā ake ai ki ngā ariki whenua te whakatau kaupapa mō te whakamahi i ō rātou whenua, ā, kei te haere tonu ēnei mahi “whakaahei”. Engari, i kōrerohia mai anō mātou tērā ētahi take he roa ake te wā ki te whakarite, pēnei i ngā whenua mauraka me ngā rori pepa.

Tā mātou whakaaroaro i te pire me ngā tāpaetanga kōrero

Kua pānuitia, kua āta whakaaroarohia e mātou ngā tāpaetanga kōrero a ngā rōpū, hunga hoki neke atu i te 150 mō te pire, ā, i rongo mātou i ngā tāpaetanga kōrero 47 mai i a rātou i hiahia ki te tuku ā-waha mai i ō rātou whakaaro. E 15 rātou i tautoko i te pire, e 39 i whakahē, ā, e 98 kāore i tautoko, kāore i whakahē rānei i te pire. Ko te whakapono o ētahi o mātou ehara ēnei tatauranga i te tino hāngai pū ki te hōhonutanga o ngā māharahara, nā te kiato o te pire, ā, tērā pea ka whakaatu i te korenga o te tino uru mai ki ngā tukanga whitiwhiti kōrero ōkawa.

He nui anō te wā i pau ki te uiui i ngā āpiha kia mārama pai ake ai ka pēhea ake te whakatinana i ngā āhuatanga rerekē o ngā whakaritenga hou. Nā tēnei i āhua tau mātou, engari me hora anō ngā mōhiohio kia pērā anō te tau o ngā kaiwhakamahi i te ture ā muri ake.

He mea waiwai tētahi aratohu kaiwhakamahi

He mea taketake ki a mātou kia whakaratohia ngā mōhiohio me te tohutohu mō te ture hou me te pou tarāwaho ā-whakahaere ki te whakaaetia te pire, kia mōhio ai, kia tau ai te iwi hei te wā ka whakamanatia ai.

He maha ngā kaitāpae kōrero i whakaputa i ō rātou anipā mō ngā whakahounga e marohitia ana. Te āhua nei ko te maha o ō rātou māharahara i ahu mai i te kore mōhio ki te āhua o te whakatinana i te kaupapa hou nei. Kāore e kore nā ngā take e pā ana ki te raruraru ā-wā kua kōrerohia ngā māharahara—arā, i te mea kei te kōkirihia te pire i roto i te Whare i te wā tonu kei te mahia tonutia ngā āhuatanga matua o te kaupapa whakahou: otirā, te waihanga me te whakatū i te Ratonga Whenua Māori.

Nā tēnei he mea nui ki ō mātou whakaaro kia roa tonu te whakauru haere mai i te pire, kia 18 marama mai i te whakaaetanga Roera me te tīmatatanga. Ki tā mātou titiro, he wā tino hira tēnei ki te āta whakamōhio i te iwi mō te ture hou, ā, kia rata hoki rātou ki te whakamahi i ngā kaupapa me ngā ratonga hou.

E tūtohu ana mātou me tino whakapau kaha ki te whakarato mōhiohio i roto i te wā tika me ārahi hoki i ērā ka whai pānga ki te ture. E taunaki ana mātou kia whakaritea mai he aratohu kaiwhakamahi ki te pou tarāwaho ture me te Ratonga Whenua Māori hou, me te whakapau kaha hoki ki te whakaputa whānui i ngā mōhiohio whaitake mō te kaupapa hou. Me āta whakarite kia tukuna ngā mōhiohio kia tino mārama ai tōna āhua, tae atu ki whai hoahoa me ngā pikitia whakamārama.

Ngā menemana kua tūtohutia

He maha ngā rerekētanga ki te pire e tūtohutia ana e mātou nā runga i ngā urupare ki ngā take i whakaarahia mai e ngā kaitāpae kōrero, me ā mātou ake mahi tirotiro. E whakapono ana mātou ka hāngai ake ēnei rerekētanga ki ngā mātāpono matua e tūāpapa ana i te pire, ka whakapai ake i tana whakamahitanga, me te whakakore i ngā mutunga iho tē hiahiatia.

Ko te roanga atu o ngā kōrero nei he matapaki i ngā menemana matua ka tūtohutia e mātou ki te pire i whakaurua mai. Kāore mātou i te matapaki i ngā menemana iti, menamena tukanga rānei.

Wāhanga 1—Ngā Whakaritenga Whakataki

Whakamāramatanga

E whakamārama ana te whiti 5 i ngā kupu rerekē e whakamahia whānuitia ana i roto i te pire. Kia mōhio mai, kāore i te whakamāramahia he aha te “tikanga Māori”. E whakaae ana mātou ki tēnei whakaaro, ina ko te whakamahitanga tika o te tikanga Māori ahakoa te āhuatanga ka noho mā ngā whakaaturanga e tohu—arā, e ai ki ngā tikanga me ngā whakahaere a te whānau, hapū, iwi ake rānei—kaua mā te ture e tohu. E marohi ana mātou i ngā menemana e whai ake ki ngā whakamāramatanga.

Ko te tikanga o ngā “ariki whai wāhi mai” e ai ki te pire i whakaurua mai ko ngā ariki o ngā whenua ka whai wāhi mai ki te whakarite whakatau. E taunaki ana mātou kia whakamāramahia anō te tikanga o te kōrero “whai wāhi mai”, kia mārama ai ehara ko te hunga i pōti mō tētahi whakaaro anake, engari ko rātou anō i whai wāhi ki te tukanga whakarite whakatau, ahakoa ka noho whakakeke mai i te pōti. Tērā pea ko te tae ā-tinana ki tētahi hui, i runga Skype, mā tētahi atu hangarau whitiwhiti rānei.

Ko te whakamāramatanga o te kupu “whāngai” i roto i te pire (he tangata i whāngaitia i raro i ngā tikanga whāngai a te Māori) ka noho ki te tikanga a te iwi, hapū rānei e hāngai ana. I runga anō i ā mātou matapaki ā muri ake mō te horopaki o ngā whanaungatanga whakapapa (whiti 8), ka tuwhera mai pea i tēnei te āhuatanga kumukumu. E tūtohu ana mātou kia tangohia mai te kupu iwi mai i te whakamāramatanga, ā, kia riro mā te tikanga a te hapū ake, whānau ake rānei e whakatau he aha te whāngai. Ki te rangirua, ki te rerekē rānei i waenga i ēnei e rua, ki ō mātou whakaaro ko te tikanga a te whānau te mea matua.

Te hono ki te whenua i runga i te tikanga Māori

E tūtohu ana mātou ki te whakauru i te whiti 7A kia mārama ake ai te hiahia o te pire mō te wāhanga ko wai e hono ana ki tētahi whenua. Mai i a mātou kōrerorero me ngā kaitāpae kōrero, te āhua nei ko te whakamāori pea mō ngā wāhi e pā ana ki ngā kāwai whakaheke me ngā kaipānga māraurau (hei tauira, i ngā whiti 96 me 246) me whakaū i te whakapapa o te tangata kia hāngai ia ki tētahi tupuna i whai pānga tuku iho ki te whenua i te mua o te 1840. Ehara koinei te hiahia.

E ai ki ngā mātāpono matua o te pire, me te ārai i ngā uauatanga e pā ana ki te whai i ngā whakapapa me ngā mutunga iho tē hiahiatia mai i ngā kōhikohiko o mua (pēnei i te tohatoha whenua i Mangakino i 1925 me ngā whenua i Te Papaioea, i te 1866 me te 1867, ki te hunga nō wāhi kē o te motu), e marohi ana mātou kāore e hiahiatia kia hoki ngā aromatawai hononga ki te wā i mua o te tīmatanga o te pire.

Ngā kāwai whakaheke e ai ki te tikanga Māori

E kī ana te whiti 8 mā te tikanga Māori e whakatau ngā here whakapapa o ngā tamariki whāngai (ahakoa he whāngai, i raro rānei i te Adoption Act 1955). Ka riro mā te tikanga Māori e whakatau mēnā he uri rātou nō ō rātou mātua whāngai, ō rātou mātua ake, ngā mea e rua rānei. Ina whakatau ana i te tauatanga me ngā kaiwhiwhi e pai ana, kei runga ake te tikanga Māori i ngā mea katoa e taupatupatu ana i roto i te Adoption Act. He rerekētanga tēnei mai i te Ture onāianei.

Me whai whakatau Kōti Whenua Māori rawa hei tohu i tētahi hono whāngai i raro i te tikanga Māori. Kei te mōhio mātou he tukanga māmā noa iho mēnā kāore he kaiwhakahē. Ki te whakahētia te hono, ka tukuna atu te take ki te ratonga whakatau wenewene hou. Ki te kore te take e whakatauhia i konei, ka whakahokia atu pea ki te kōti.

He maha ngā kaitāpae i tuku tautoko mō te whakamahi i te tikanga hei whakatau i ngā hononga whānau me ngā whāngai ā-ture, e kīia ana he pai ake i ngā whāngai ā-ture ki te waiho mā te kōti kē e hanga kōrero ā-ture ki te kī he hononga ā-whānau kē te hono. Engari, he maha ngā take i whakaarahia e ngā kaitāpae kōrero e whakapono ana mātou he tika tonu kia whakatikahia tēnei wāhi.

I roto i te pire e whakaurua ana, e kī ana te whiti 8 mā te tikanga o te iwi ake, hapū ake rānei e whakatau mēnā ko te hononga whāngai he hononga whakapapa. E ai ki ngā kōrero i mua ake, ki ō mātou whakaaro he tika ake mā te tikanga o te whānau ake, hapū ake rānei tēnā i te tā te iwi mō te whakatau i te tūranga whāngai, ā, e tūtohu ana kia tangohia mai te kōrero mō te iwi mai i te whiti 8(2). Ki te tūpono kāore i te ōrite, e tūtohu ana mātou kia hira ake te tikanga a te whānau i tā te hapū.

Tuarua, ki ō mātou whakaaro ka puta pea i te whiti 8(2)(a) me tohu i ngā hononga tuku iho i ia hono o te taitara. Ko tō mātou hiahia kia kaua tēnei e whakaurua, ā, me te tūtohu kia whakaurua he whitu 7A hou.

Tuatoru, e tūtohu ana mātou i tētahi menemana hei whakamārama i te whiti 8(3)(c). Ehara i te mea me whai tohu ngā hononga whānautanga katoa mō tētahi here ā-tikanga. Ka hāngai pea tēnei mēnā ka kīia te hononga whānautanga e te Adoption Act he “hononga rerekē”. I tēnei āhuatanga anake me whai whakatau kōti hei whakatau i te hononga.

Wāhanga 2—Whenua Māori me te whenua tāpui

Ko te wāhanga 2 o te pire e pā ana ki ngā whakamāramatanga me te tūranga o te whenua Māori tuku iho me te whenua Māori korehere. Kei roto anō ko ngā wāhi e pā ana ki te whenua tāpui, e kōrerohia ana hoki i roto i te Ture 1993 hei whenua rāhui.

I tua atu i ētahi menemana tukanga, ko ngā rerekētanga matua e marohitia ana i tēnei wāhanga e pā ana ki te wāhi 39, mō te rōpū whakahaere i tohua mō tētahi whenua tāpui.

Ngā rōpū whakahaere

E tūtohu ana mātou mō tētahi poari whakahaere me whai wāhi kia whā ngā mema i te iti rawa, kaua kia toru e ai ki te pire kei te whakaurua. E whakarite ana tēnei kia kaua e riro mā tētahi kōrama o te tokorua anake e tuku whakatau, mā te tangata kotahi anake rānei.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he whiti hou 39A kia whai mana ai te kōti ki te tuku whakatau e here ana i te rōpū whakahaere o tētahi whenua tāpui. He whirinakitanga tēnei mō te tūpono pā mai o ngā mahi nanakia, hēhē, whānako rānei, he rōpū whakahaere rānei kāore i te ū ki te kaupapa ake o te whenua tāpui, kei te takahi rānei i ngā whakaritenga, tikanga whakatiki rānei.

Wāhangaiti 3—Kawenata tiaki whenua

E tūtohu ana mātou kia nekehia ngā wāhi e pā ana ki te kawenata tiaki whenua ki te Wāhanga 2 mai i te Wāhanga 4 o te pire e whakaurua ana, i te mea he ōrite te āhua ki te whenua tāpui. Ka noho ēnei hei whiti hou 44A ki te 44C.

Wāhanga 3—Ngā pānga rangatiratanga i roto te whenua Māori korehere

Te tuku whakatau a ngā ariki o ngā whenua Māori korehere

Ko ngā whiti 51 ki te 57, me te Pukapuka Āpiti 2, ka whakarārangi mai i ngā tukanga me ngā taumata whakaaetanga e herea ana ngā whakatau ki ngā ariki katoa o ngā whenua Māori korehere. Ko ngā whakatau hira rawa me noho ērā mā tētahi ōwehenga ka whakatauhia o ngā ariki whenua katoa. Ko ētahi atu whakatau, kāore e whai pānga ki te rironga o te whenua, ka taea te whakatau e tētahi ōwehenga ka whakatauhia o ngā ariki whenua ka whai wāhi ki te tuku i te whakatau. E kī ana te pire he “ariki whenua whai wāhi mai”rātou.

E whakarārangi ana te whiti 51 i ngā taumata rerekē o te whai wāhi mai e hiahiatia ana mō ngā whakatau rerekē a ngā ariki whenua whai wāhi mai. He tuku hoki i tētahi tukanga tuku whakatau tuarua ki te kore e eke ngā taumata whai wāhi mai e hiahiatia ana. (E marohi ana mātou kia huria tēnei tikanga huarahi tuarua, ā, mō muri nei ka whakamāramahia ai.)

I rongo mātou i ngā tāpaetanga kōrero rerekē mō ngā whakaritenga tuku whakatau e marohitia ana. He maha ngā kaitāpae kōrero i tautoko i te tikanga e pā ana ki ngā ariki whenua whai wāhi mai, he pai ake tēnei ki a rātou i te paearu tuakiri kei roto i te Ture onāianei. I kī rātou ka whakaritea ngā uauatanga mō te whai kōrama i ngā hui, ā, ka māmā ake ki ngā ariki whenua i te tuku whakatau mō ō rātou whenua. I kōrero ngā kaitāpae kōrero rerekē mō ngā pae o ngā taumata: i kī ētahi he teitei rawa, ā, ki ētahi atu he pāpaku rawa.

Kāore mātou i te whakatakoto whakaaro ki ngā taumata whai wāhi. Ki ō mātou whakaaro kei te pai noa ina tāpiri atu ki te tikanga huarahi tuarua (ki te taha o tā mātou menemana marohi) me ngā wāhi e āhei ana ngā ariki whenua—me ngā ariki whenua matangaro—kia whai wāhi ki ngā tuku whakatau mā te pepa whakakapi, waea, tikanga mamati rānei. Ko te mea tika pea, ka māmā ake pea i te pire te tuku whakatau me te whakamaru hoki i ngā pānga o ngā ariki whenua matangaro.

Engari, e whakaae ana mātou ki ngā kaitāpae kōrero ko ngā whiti e pā ana ki te tuku whakatau he uaua, he whakarare, ā, nō reira me mārama ake. E marohitia ana ngā huinga e whai ake.

Ngā taumata whai wāhi mai mō ngā whakatau

Mō te whakarite i te pire kia mārama ake ai te āhua, e tūtohu ana mātou kia whakangāwaritia te whiti 51 mā te neke i ētahi o ngā wāhi ki ngā whiti hou 51A me te 51B. Mō ngā take tohutoro, e tūtohu anō mātou kia whakaurua he whiti 51C e whai tūtohi ana e whakarārangi ana i ngā taumata tuku whakatau.

Tukanga huarahi tuarua tuku whakatau

Ka āhei i te whiti 51(8) tētahi tukanga huarahi tuarua tuku whakatau hei whai ki te kore e eke te taumata whai wāhi mai mō tētahi whakatau. Ka āhei i tēnei tukanga huarahi tuarua kia herea he whakatau a te nuinga o ngā ariki whenua i whai wāhi ki tētahi hui e whakatakotohia ana he whakatau. E tūtohu ana mātou i tētahi menemana hei whakarite i ngā māharahara mō tēnei tukanga e taea ai e tētahi rōpū ariki whenua iti te tuku whakatau whānui e whai pānga ki ngā ariki katoa o te whenua.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te tukanga kia kī ka taea ia whakatau i puta nā te tukanga huarahi tuarua tuku whakatau te arotake e te Kōti Whenua Māori, hei whakarite i ū ki ngā mātāpono e tūāpapa ana i te ture. Kāore e mana te whakatau kia whakaūhia rā anō e te kōti kei te ū te whakatau ki ngā Wāhanga 1 me 9, ā, i rata anō te kōti ka āwhina te whakatau i ngā ariki whenua ki te pupuri, whakahaere, noho, whakawhanake rānei i ō rātou whenua mō te painga o ngā ariki whenua onāianei me āpōpō.

Ngā ariki whenua i raro i te 18 tau

Mō ngā ariki o ngā whenua Māori korehere te whiti 52 kei raro i te 18 tau, ā, kāore anō kia tohua he kaiwhakamarumaru hei whakahaere i ō rātou pānga. E kī ana kāore e taea e te tamariki te pōti mō ngā whakatau, ā, kāore e uru mai hei ariki whenua whai wāhi mai ki te tuku whakatau.

E mōhio ana mātou i takea mai tēnei whakaritenga i te ture rawa whānui, e kī ana kāore he mana kirimana tō te tamaiti. Hei ahakoa, he tino urukati tēnei wāhi, ina kāore i te arohia ngā pānga o te tamaiti ahakoa anō pea nōna te tino wāhanga nui o te whenua. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te whiti 52(1)(b) kia taea ai he pōti mā te tamaiti e tētahi kaiwhakahaere rawa i tohua i raro i te Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act 1988 hei whakahaere i ngā rawa a te tamaiti.

Ngā tarahiti whānau

Kei te wāhangaiti 2 o te Wāhanga 3 ngā wāhi mō te whakatū, te whakahaere, me te whakamoe i ngā tarahiti whānau. He tikanga momoho aua tarahiti i raro i te Ture onāianei ki ngā whānau ki te pupuri ā-tōpū me te whakahaere i ō rātou pānga whenua.

E taunaki ana mātou i ētahi menemana ki te whiti 58 kia mārama ake me pēhea te whakatū tarahiti whānau.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he whiti 70A kia whakaaehia e te kōti te wete mai a tētahi kaipānga i ōna pānga mai i te tarahiti i ngā āhuatanga tino rerekē. Ko te whāinga o tēnei wāhi he āwhina i ngā āhuatanga pēnei i ngā wā ka tino hē tētahi tarahiti nā te whatinga o ngā whanaungatanga i roto i te whānau (hei tauira, nā te whakarekereke ā-whare).

E tūtohu ana mātou i ngā menemana rerekē kei te whiti 71 me te whakauru i tētahi whiti 71A ki 71C hei whakangāwari i te tukanga tuku whakatau i whakaratohia, ā, me te whakarato anō kia whakaritea anō ētahi atu rawa tarahiti e ai ki ngā pānga whaihua o te whenua.

Ka whakatakoto tā mātou whiti hou 72A i ngā kawenga o te kaiwhakahaere mātāmua me te Tumu Paeroa e ai ki ngā moni tarahiti ki te tūpono whakamoea he tarahiti whānau.

Kaiwhakamarumaru

Ko te wāhangaiti 3 o te Wāhanga 3 mō te kaiwhakamarumaru, he tangata i tohua e te kōti hei whakahaere i ngā rawa a tētahi tamaiti, tētahi atu ariki whenua rānei kei te hiahia whakamarutanga. E tūtohu ana mātou i ētahi rerekētanga ki ēnei wāhi hei whakapai ake i te āhua o te whakamahi. Kei roto i ēnei rerekētanga kia menemanahia te whiti 83(1) kia mārama ai ka whakahaua ngā utu e puta ana i te kaiwhakamarumaru.

Wāhanga 4—Te whakawhiti whenua Māori korehere me ētahi atu whenua

Te tikanga o te kaiwhiwhi pai ake me te hinonga pai ake

Ko te Wāhanga 4 o te pire e whakarite ana i ngā whakawhitinga o ngā whenua Māori korehere. [He whānui te tikanga o te kupu “Whakawhiti” mō te āhuatanga ki te whenua, pēnei i te hoko, te tuku, rīhi, mōkete, āheinga, roherohe, tētahi atu whakaritenga rohenga rānei.] Ka haere tonu te aronga i raro i te Ture 1992 o te whakatepe i a rātou ka whiwhi pea, ka hiahiatia rānei kia whiwhi, i te whenua Māori korehere, pānga whenua rānei. Engari, ka huria ētahi kupu matua (mai i te “preferred classes of alienees” ki te “preferred recipients”(kaiwhiwhi pai ake) me te “preferred entities” (hinonga pai ake). Ka piki ake anō te aronga ki te tikanga Māori mā te here i ia kaiwhiwhi pai ake kia whai hononga ki te whenua e ai ki te tikanga Māori. Kāore e herea tēnei hononga e te Ture 1993 mō te wāhanga ki ngā tamariki me ngā uri o ngā ariki whenua, e whakaata ana i tētahi kōhikohiko tawhito i āhei ai a tauiwi ki te whai pānga i roto i ngā whenua Māori korehere. I ngā āhuatanga maha, e ai ki te tikanga hāngai, me whai hononga whakapapa tēnei, engari ehara tēnei i te whakaritenga i raro i te pire i te mea ka utaina he herenga ā-ture ki te tikanga.

Mai i ā mātou matapaki me ngā kaitāpae kōrero, kua kite mātou nā ngā kupu o te whiti 96(1)(a) ka pōhēhē pea ētahi me hāngai te whakapapa o tētahi kaiwhiwhi pai ake ki tētahi tupuna i whai pānga tuku iho ki te whenua i mua i te 1840. Ko te kaupapa o te whakaritenga ehara ko te whakahau i te tangata kia pērā rawa te tawhiti o te tātai i tōna whakapapa.

Nō reira e tūtohu ana mātou kia whakakapihia te whiti 96(1)(c) ki tētahi whakaritenga whānui ake. Ko tā mātou e marohi ana ka whakarite ko te “kaiwhiwhi pai ake” ko ngā tamariki, mokopuna, me ētahi atu uri o tētahi tangata Māori he ariki whenua i te rā i tīmata ai te ture. E whakapono ana mātou ka pare atu tēnei i ngā mutunga iho tē hiahiatia ka puta i ngā kōhikohiko tuku iho, me te noho pono tonu ki ngā mātāpono matua i takea mai ai te pire.

Te rīhi i tētahi pīhi whenua mō ngā take whānui

Ko te whiti 128 he kōrero mō te rīhi i tētahi pīhi whenua Māori korehere mō tētahi kaupapa i tua atu i te kāinga noho.

Ngā rīhi wā poto

Mō ngā rīhi o te 52 tau, poto ake rānei, ki ō mātou whakaaro kaore i te hāngai te taumata whakaaetanga o ngā ariki whenua (kia 75 ōrau i te iti rawa o ngā hea o ngā ariki whenua whai wāhi mai, ahakoa te wā o te rīhi) o te pire me ngā taumata piki haere e mana ana i tēnei wā i raro i te Māori Assembled Owners Regulations 1995. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia tēnei whiti hei whakatau i ngā taumata whakaaetanga piki haere o ngā ariki whenua, e ai ki te wā o te rīhi e marohitia ana, kia pai ake tana hāngai ki ngā ture. Ko te tikanga o te rerekētanga kua kore e taea e ngā ariki whenua whai wāhi te tuku te whenua ki tētahi rīhi mō tētahi wā roa ake i te 7 tau. Me whakaae tētahi ōwehenga o ngā ariki whenua katoa i ngā wā rīhi roa ake i te 7 tau. E marohi ana mātou kia kaua he rerekētanga ki ngā ture e hāngai ana ki te noho mai he poari whakahaere.

Ngā rīhi wā roa

Kāore ō mātou marohitanga ki te whakarerekē i ngā rīhi wā roa. I tēnei whiti ka āhei he poari whakahaere ki te whakaae ki ngā rīhi wā roa (ērā he roa ake i te 52 tau te roa) me te whakatau i ngā whāititanga e ai ki ō rātou hiahia, me te wā rīhi mōrahi o te 99 tau. Me mātua whakamana te poari whakahaere i te tuatahi ki te whakauru ki ngā rīhi wā roa e ngā ariki whenua kua whai hea neke au i te 50 ōrau i roto i te whenua. Koinei anō te taumata i raro i te Ture onāianei, engari i raro i te pire ka taea anō e ngā ariki whenua te whakarite taumata teitei ake hei whakaae mā ngā ariki whenua.

I ngā wā kāore he rōpū whakahaere, ka hāngai anō taua taumata mō te whakaae a ngā ariki whenua me te wā rīhi 99 tau te mōrahi, engari ko ngā rīhi roa ake i te 25 tau ka whai here kia whakaū rā anō te Kōti Whenua Māori kei te ū ki ngā whakaritenga o te Wāhanga 1 ki te 9.

Ngā rīhi-whāiti anō me ngā rīhi-whaiaro

Hei whakangāwari i ngā āhuatanga ki ngā ariki o ngā whenua, e tūtohu ana mātou ki te menemana i te whiti 128(9)(b) kia āhei ai ngā ariki whenua ki te whakaae ki te rīhi-whāiti anō ā muri ake i te wā tonu i whakaae ki te rīhi tuatahi. E tūtohu anō mātou kia menemanahia te whiti 128(10) kia āhei ai te whakarite i tētahi rīhi-whaiaro, rīhi-whāiti anō rānei ki tētahi rōpū kē ki te eke he taumata whakaaetanga ariki whenua e hiahiatia ana mēnā ehara te rīhi tuatahi i te rīhi-whaiaro.

Ngā raihana, ngā motika tango rawa rānei

Ko te whiti 132 he kōrero mō te tuku i tētahi raihana, “motika tango rawa” rānei (he tika ki te tango i tētahi mea i te whenua o tētahi kē, pēnei i ngā rākau, hua whenua, manawa whenua rānei). Ki te kore he rōpū whakahaere, me whai whakaaetanga i ngā ariki whenua e pupuri ana neke atu i te 50 ōrau o ngā hea i roto i te whenua. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia tēnei whiti hei whakatau i ngā taumata whakaaetanga piki haere o ngā ariki whenua, e ai ki te wā o te raihana e marohitia ana, te motika tango rawa rānei. Ko te tikanga o tēnei ki te kore he rōpū whakahaere ka hāngai ngā taumata ki ngā taumata hou e tūtohutia e mātou i runga ake mō ngā rīhi.

Wāhangaiti 3—Kawenata tiaki whenua

E ai ki ngā kōrero i mua ake, e tūtohu ana mātou kia nekehia ngā whiti 137 ki te 139 mai i te Wāhanga 4 ki te Wāhanga 2 o te pire (hei whiti hou 44A ki te 44C). I te mea he ōrite ngā kawenata ki ngā whenua tāpui, he tika ake te hāngai o ngā whakaritenga ki taua Wāhanga.

Wāhanga 5—Te mana ki te mahi e pā ana ki te whenua Māori korehere

Kua whai whakaritenga tēnei Wāhanga e whakamana ana i ētahi tāngata i tua atu i ngā ariki whenua Māori korehere ki te mahi mō ētahi kaupapa whāiti e pā ana ki te whenua. Tērā pea he rōpū poari whakahaere ēnei, he māngai rānei. E kīia ana ngā māngai i roto i te pire he kaiwhakahaere. Kei te hāngai anō te Wāhanga 6 me Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 1, 3, me te 4 ki te tauira poari whakahaere hou.

Kei te tautoko te nuinga o ngā kaitāpae kōrero i te tauira poari whakahaere hou, me tōna ngāwari mō ngā whakaaetanga poari whakahaere kia hāngai ki ngā hiahia o ngā ariki whenua. He kōwhiringa hou te rangatōpū mō ngā ariki whenua hou e hiahia ana ki te whakatū i tō rātou rōpū mō tō rātou rōpū poari whakahaere kaua i te tohu i ngā rōpū pēnei i te Tumu Paeroa, Public Trust, he kamupene kaitiaki rānei. Kei te tautokona te whakaaro kia kaua ngā tarahiti onāianei me ngā kaporeihana Māori e herea ki te whakawhiti ki te tauira rangatōpū hou.

Te tohu i tētahi rōpū poari whakahaere

Ko te whiti 157 he kōrero mō te tohu i tētahi poari whakahaere mō tētahi pīhi whenua Māori korehere. E tūtohu ana mātou i ētahi menemana kia āhei ai ngā ariki o ngā pīhi whenua maha te whakakotahi mai i ō rātou whenua ki raro i ngā whakaritenga poari whakahaere kotahi.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he whiti hou 159A kia mārama ai me ū tētahi poari whakahaere ki ngā herenga o tētahi ture e hāngai ana pea ki a ia.

Ngā take tāke

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he whiti hou 173A e kapi ai ngā take tāke mō ngā kaporeihana Māori me ngā tarahiti ka whakatau kia noho hei rangatōpū. Ka whakarite ēnei wāhi kia kaua he pānga tāke tē hiahiatia nā te whakawhitinga o ngā rawa me ngā taunaha ki te rangatōpū.

Te whakakore i tētahi rōpū whakahaere i tohua

Ka āhei ngā ariki o tētahi pīhi whenua Māori korehere i raro i te whiti 174 ki te whakakore i tētahi rōpū whakahaere i tohua mō taua whenua mēnā e 75 ōrau o ngā ariki whenua whai wāhi mai i te hui i pōti ki te whakakore.

E ai ki te whakaurunga, ka pupū ake te pōkaikaha i tēnei wāhi me te whakaiti i te mana o te rōpū whakahaere ki te mahi tika i ana mahi, i te mea ka taea e tētahi ariki whenua kotahi te tukanga te tīmata. Kei te kite raruraru mātou mō ngā whakaritenga poari whakahaere mēnā ka taea e tētahi ariki whenua kotahi te tīmata te tukanga whakakore i tētahi whakaaetanga poari whakahaere. Nō reira e tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te whiti 174 kia āta kī ai ko te tukanga tuku whakatau hei whakakore i tētahi whakaaetanga poari whakahaere me whakatakoto e ngā ariki whenua 15 i te iti rawa he pānga tōpū 5 ōrau i te iti rawa tō rātou i roto i te whenua.

Ka taea e te kōti te arotake ētahi whakatau whāiti a ngā ariki whenua e pā ana ki ngā rōpū whakahaere

Ka āhei te kōti i raro i te whiti 188 ki te arotake i ngā whakatau a ngā ariki whenua ki te tohu, whakakore rānei i tētahi rōpū whakahaere. Ka taea anake tētahi whakatau te whakarere i runga i te hē o te whai i te tukanga.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te whiti 188(2) kia riro tētahi tono arotake i tētahi whakatau mā ngā ariki whenua 15 i te iti rawa he pānga tōpū 5 ōrau i te iti rawa tō rātou i roto i te whenua e whakatakoto.

Ngā kawenga o te kaiwhakahaere

E whakarato ana te pire mā te Kōti Whenua Māori e tohu tētahi tangata hei kaiwhakahaere ki te kawe i tētahi kaupapa whāiti e pā ana ki tētahi pīhi whenua Māori korehere. E ōrite ana tēnei ki te mana o te kōti ki te tohu i tētahi māngai i raro i te Ture 1993. E tūtohu ana mātou me tāpiri te kōwae 191(2)(ba) kia whai tuhinga kōrero te kaiwhakahaere o ngā mahi i kawea mā ngā ariki o te whenua.

Wāhanga 6—Ngā whakahaere a ngā rōpū whakahaere

Ko te Wāhanga 6 o te pire he whakature i ngā whakahaere a ngā rōpū whakahaere. I pai ki ngā kaitāpae kōrero te āhua e uta ai ngā whakahou i ngā kawenga nui ake, mārama ake hoki ki ngā rōpū whakahaere me ngā kaitiaki. Ko ngā mea pēnei i ngā paearu māraurau tika ake; me ngā mahi me ngā kawenga mārama ake e ōrite ana ki ērā o ngā tumuaki kamupene me ngā kaitiaki.

Engari, i āta kōrero anō ngā kaitāpae kōrero me tino mārama ngā rōpū whakahaere me ngā kaitiaki ki ngā kōrero me ngā pānga o te ture hou. Ka hoki atu ki te take e kōrerohia ana e mātou i mua ake mō te tino hira o te tuku mōhiohio rawaka me ngā tohutohu mō te ture hou i mua i te whakamanatanga.

Ngā mana, ngā mahi me ngā kawenga

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he kōwae hou 202(1)(aa) kia uru he whakaritenga mārō mō ngā rōpū whakahaere ki te pupuri me te whakahaere i ngā rawa mō te painga o ngā ariki o te whenua e whakahaerehia ana. Otirā, ko te whiti-iti hou 203(aa) ka whakauru i tētahi whakaritenga mārama mō tētahi kaitiaki, rōpū whakahaere rānei kia mahi mō tētahi kaupapa tika.

Ka taea anake e tētahi rōpū whakahaere te hoko tētahi pīhi whenua mēnā i kitea e ia he whenua whakakapi e whakapauhia ai ngā hua (whiti 104(3)). E herea ana te rōpū whakahere e te whiti 207(2) ki te hoko i te whenua, te whakapai ake hoki/rānei i te whenua whakakapi. E tūtohu ana mātou i tētahi menemana kia ngāwari ake ai. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te whiti 207(2) kia kī mēnā kāore i taea e te poari te hoko mai te whenua whakakapi whai muri i tana whakapau kaha kia pērā, ka taea e ia te whakamahi ngā moni mai i te hokotanga ki te hoko, whakapai ake hoki/rānei i ētahi atu whenua ōrite te pai.

Ngā tono mōhiohio

E tūtohu ana mātou ki te menemana i te whiti 214, ngā whiti-iti (4), (6), me te (7), kia taea e tētahi rōpū whakahaere te whakahau utu tōtika ki ngā ariki whenua mō te tuku mōhiohio. Me whakamārama te āhua o te utu, ā, ka āhei te ariki whenua te tono ki te kōti mēnā ki ōna whakaaro kāore i te tika te utu.

Ngā mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori e pā ana ki ngā rōpū whakahaere

E whakarārangi ana ngā whiti 216 ki te 218 he aha ngā mea ka taea e te kōti ki te kore ia e rata ki ngā mahi, he mōrea nui pea ki ngā ariki whenua i ā rātou mahi.

Me tuku tono tētahi ōwehenga ake o ngā ariki whenua, e ai ki te whiti 216(5), ki te kōti kia whāia e te kōti. E ai ki te whakaurunga, i raro i te whiti 216(5) me whakatakoto tētahi tono e ngā ariki whenua 15 i te iti rawa, e ngā ariki whenua rānei e pupuri tōpū ana i te 5 % o te whenua. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia tēnei whakaritenga kia riro mā tētahi tono a ngā ariki whenua 15 e pupuri tōpū ana i te 5% o te whenua

Ko te whiti 218 e kōrero ana mō te mahi a te kōti i muri i te tuku i tētahi whakatau i raro i te whiti 216(2), te whakatewhatewha rānei i tētahi rōpū whakahaere. (Kei roto pea i aua whakatau ko te here i ngā kaitiaki, āpiha rānei o tētahi poari whakahaere ki te tāpae i tētahi pūrongo, te tuku i ngā tuhinga whāiti, te tū ki mua i te kōti ki te whakautu pātai.) Engari, ko te pire e whakaurua ana kāore i te tuku rongoā whāiti ki te kore e whāia ēnei mea. E tūtohu ana mātou ki te whakauru i tētahi whiti-iti (3) kia āhei te kōti ki te tuku i tētahi whakatau hei tīmata i te tukanga whakakore i tētahi whakaaetanga poari whakahaere; te tuku whakatau here e aukati ana i tētahi rōpū whakahaere, kaitaki, ariki whenua rānei mai i te whai i tētahi mahi e takahi ana i te whakaaetanga poari whakahaere; te whakatupe rānei i tētahi kaitiaki.

Wāhanga 7—Te whakahaere i ngā pānga tuku iho

E whakarārangi ana te Wāhanga 7 ko wai kei te āhei atu ki te whenua Māori korehere, tētahi pānga korehere takitahi rānei o tētahi pīhi whenua Māori korehere ina mate ana he ariki whenua me te kore tuku wira mai. He whakatakoto mai anō hoki ka pēhea te whakahaere i ngā pānga tuku iho.

Ngā whakatiki e pā ana ki te ture whakamaru whānau.

Ka mau tonu i te whiti 245 ngā whakatiki onāianei i raro i te Family Protection Act 1955 mō te hunga ka āhei ki te whiwhi i ngā pānga i te whenua Māori korehere. Ki ō mātou whakaaro kua tō kē te rā o te kaupapa mō te whiti-iti 245(5), ā, kāore i te hāngai ki ngā ture onāianei e pā ana ki te mārena i waenga i te Māori me tauiwi. E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakarerekēhia tēnei whiti-iti kia whakamanahia ai ngā mārena i waenga iwi kē i mua o te tau 1952.

Ko te tauatanga a ngā kaipānga māraurau ina mate korewira he ariki whenua

Ka huria e ngā whiti 246 me 254 te āhua o te whakatau i ngā pānga ki ngā whenua Māori korehere ina mate korewira ana he ariki whenua.

E tūtohu ana mātou i tētahi menemana ki te whiti 246 e pā ana ki ngā whakaritenga tauatanga hei whakatika i tētahi hapa pokerehū ki te āhua i waihangatia ai te pire. E tūtohu ana mātou ko ngā uri katoa e heke ana i ngā tīpuna tuarua (kaua i ngā tīpuna, e ai ki te pire i whakaurua) ka noho hei kaitaua māraurau. E ai ki te whakaurunga, kāore e eke i te whiti 246(3)(e) te koronga kaupapa here, i te mea kāore e tawhiti rawa te hoki ina whiriwhiri ana i ngā kaipānga e āhei ana. E tūtohu ana mātou me menemana tēnei whiti kia āhei ai ngā reanga katoa e heke ana i ngā tīpuna tuarua hei kaitaua.

Ka whakatikatika noa te whiti hou 246A i te whiti o mua, kia mārama ai.

Ngā tarahiti whānau i whakatūhia nā te korewira

Hei whakarite i ngā raruraru o te wehewehe o ngā tōpū whenua Māori korehere, i raro i te pire ka taka noa ki ngā tarahiti whānau ki te mate korewira he ariki whenua. He wāhanga kei reira mō ngā whānau, mema rānei o ngā whānau ki te puta mai i tētahi tarahiti ka taua takitahi. Mā te whakaaetanga tēnei, ki te kore e taea he whakaaetanga ahakoa i whai i te whakatau wenewene, mā te tono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori rānei.

E tūtohu ana mātou i ngā menemana ki te whiti 254 hei whakatakoto kia mārama ake ngā whakaritenga e pā ana ki ngā tarahiti whānau. Hei tauira, me tohu ngā kaipānga o tētahi tarahiti whānau i ngā kaitiaki, ka riro rānei mā te kōti kē e tohu. Ka mutu, me uru ki te whakapuakitanga o te tarahiti tētahi katinga i ngā kaitiaki mō te whakawhiti i ngā pānga ki te whenua engari rawa mēnā i whakahauhia e te kōti.

E tūtohu anō mātou kia whakaurua he whiti 254A kia taea ai te whakakotahi tētahi tarahiti whānau ki tētahi atu tarahiti whānau mēnā he ōrite ngā kaipānga.

Wāhanga 8—Ngā rēhita, te mana o te whenua, te tuku pānui, me ētahi atu wāhi

Kei roto i te Wāhanga 8 o te pire ngā wahi e pā ana ki ngā rēhita me ngā ture, me ētahi atu take. I tua atu i ēnei e whai ake, ko te nuinga o ngā menemana e marohitia ana e mātou i tēnei Wāhanga he iti noa, he mea tukanga hoki.

Te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori

E whakarārangi ana i te whiti 300 te mana o te kōti mō te kaupapa o ngā Wāhanga 1 ki te 9. E tūtohu ana mātou kia tuhia anō ngā kupu i te tīmatanga o tēnei whiti hei whakaata i te mana o te kōti i raro i ētahi atu Ture. E tūtohu anō mātou kia menemanahia te whiti-iti (1)(m) e whiriwhiri ana i te mana ki te whakatau i ngā whakapae o te whatinga o te mahi a tētahi rōpū whakahaere; i tēnei wā, e kapi anake ko ngā kaitiaki.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua he whiti-iti (1)(s) hei whakarato ki te kōti hei whakarite mēnā ka eke ko te tikanga a te whānau, hapū, iwi rānei i roto i tētahi āhuatanga ake.

Ngā whakaritenga pekerapu

E herea ana te kōti i raro i te whiti 318 ki te tuku whakatau e whakamana ana ki te Kaiwhakarite Whaimana ngā pānga whaihua o tētahi tangata i whakapuakitia kua pekerapu ina tono ana te Kaiwhakarite Whaimana. Nō te Ture 1993 tēnei whakaritenga. E tūtohu ana kia whakahāngaitia tēnei tukanga kia kore ai te kōti e whai wāhi mai; engari, kia riro mā te Kaiwhakarite Whaimana e rēhita ngā pānga tuku. Otirā, ka taea te whakahoki atu ngā pānga o te tangata mā te tuku i muri i te tukutanga mai i te pekerapu.

Ngā ture me ngā utu

I raro i te whiti 326 ka taea te Kāwana-Tianara, nā te Ōta Kaunihera Raupapa, te whakatau ture mō ngā kaupapa rerekē i raro i ngā Wāhanga 1 ki te 9. Kei roto i tēnei ko ngā ture (whiti-iti(k)) e whakahau ana i ngā utu mō ngā ratonga, ētahi atu take rānei i raro i ngā Wāhanga 1 ki te 9.

Ko ngā menemana e marohitia ana e mātou i tēnei whiti he āhuatanga tino iti, he mea tukanga anō hoki. Engari, he take nui ki ngā kaitāpae kōrero te nui o ngā utu ka whakahauhia i raro i tēnei ture, otirā ngā utu e pā ana ki ngā ratonga ka tukuna e te Ratonga Whenua Māori, kei te hiahia kōrero mātou mō tēnei.

Kei te mōhio mātou kei te haere tonu ngā mahi waihanga i ngā ture, nō reira kāore i te mōhiotia ngā utu, tae atu ki ērā a te Ratonga Whenua Māori. He take tino nui ki a mātou kia taea e ngā tāngata ngā ratonga e whakaratohia ana i raro i tēnei ture, nō reira kaua ngā utu e pare atu i a rātou.

Kua whakaarohia e mātou te pire i runga i te take kia kaua e iti ake te āhei atu a ngā ariki whenua Māori ki ngā ratonga onāianei, ka mutu kia kaua e whakaritea ngā utu hei utu i te katoa o ngā mahi. Ki tō mātou mōhio koinei te hiahia o te Kāwanatanga, ka mutu kei te waihangatia te mahere pakihi mō te Ratonga Whenua Māori i runga i tēnei.

Wāhanga 9—Te whakatau wenewene

Ka whakatūhia e te pire tētahi ratonga whakatau wenewene whenua Māori hou hei āwhina i ngā tāngata me ngā rōpū ki te whakatau whakahē, raruraru hoki i waenga i a rātou anō i raro i ngā tikanga, uara, me te kawa o ngā hapū e hāngai ana ki te whenua. Ki te tūpono he wenewene whānau, ka mana ko te kawa o te whānau.

Kei roto i te tukanga hou he wāhanga takawaenga (ka āwhina tētahi kaitakawaenga i ngā rōpū ki te whakatau i ō rātou raruraru mā te whakaae tahi), he wāhanga whakataunga (ki te kore e whakaae tahi, ka whakaae pea ngā rōpū ki te tuku mā te kaitakawaenga e tuku tētahi whakatau paihere).

I tautoko ngā kaitāpae kōrero i te tukanga whakatau wenewene e marohitia ana, i kite rātou he whakamana i te hunga ka whai wāhi, ā, he pai ake i te tukanga onāianei o te heri i ngā wenewene ki te kōti. Kei te hiahia ngā kaitāpae kōrero kia riro mā te Ratonga Whenua Māori e whakahaere, ā, kia kaua he utu.

E tūtohu ana mātou kia whakawhānuitia te whiti 328, e whakarārangi ana i te kaupapa o ngā whakaritenga whakatau wenewene, kia whakaurua mai ngā mātāpono matua o te pire (mai i te whiti 3), ā, ko ngā wenewene e pā ana ki te whenua Māori kia whakahaerehia i runga te āhuatanga e mau ai, e kaha ake ai rānei ngā hononga i waenga i ngā ariki whenua me ngā tāngata o tō rātou whānau, hapū hoki.

E whakamahia ana e tēnei wāhanga o te pire te kōrero, “mātauranga takawaenga”. Ko te whakamārama i te whiti 329 he tukanga tēnei hei āwhina i ngā tāngata, rōpū hoki ki te whakatau whakahē, taupatupatu hoki, ki tērā e taea ana, i raro i ngā tikanga, uara me te kawa o te hapū (whānau rānei, i ngā wenewene whānau) e pā ana ki te whenua. Kāore ngā kaitāpae kōrero i rata ki tēnei kōrero, ā, e tūtohu ana mātou kia kaua tērā kōrero me te kupu “kawa” e whakamahia. Engari, e marohi ana mātou kia whakaurua te whiti-iti 328(2) hei whakamārama i te kōrero “tikanga hāngai” me “ngā uara me te kawa”.

E tūtohu ana mātou i ētahi menemana i ngā whiti 332 ki 342 hei whakapai ake me te whakamārama i ngā āhuatanga o te tukanga. I tua atu, ka whakarite ēnei rerekētanga ina whakaaroarohia ka hāngai ngā pūkenga o te kaitakawaenga ki te āhua o ngā wenewene ake i tohua ai ia. Ka āhei anō ngā māngai ki te noho atu ina kōrerorero ana te kaitakawaenga ki ngā rōpū mōna i whai mana ki te tuku whakatau paihere Ka herea te kaiwhakahaere mātāmua e te menemana ki te whiti 340 kia whakatuwhera tūmatanui i ngā tohutohu whānui i tukuna i raro i tērā wāhi.

Ngā Wāhanga 10 ki 15—Ngā wāhi e pā ana ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōti Pīra Māori

Ka haere tonu te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōti Pīra Māori i raro i ngā Wāhanga 10 ki te 15 o te pire. E ai ki ā mātou kōrero i tā mātou kōrero whakataki, ka whakamanahia ēnei wāhanga o te pire hei wāhanga motuhake o te ture.

I whakaae te nuinga o ngā kaitāpae kōrero mō te kōti, me te kōti pīra, me noho tonu hei whakahaere hira mō te whakatau i ngā take e pā ana ki te whenua Māori. I tino whakahē ētahi kaitāpae kōrero, i runga i ō rātou wheako kino i reira.

He rerekē ngā whakaaro o ngā kaitāpae mō ngā rerekētanga e marohitia ana mō te mahi me te mana o te kōti mai i ngā Wāhanga 1 ki te 9. He maha i tautoko kia huria te mahi a te kōti, mai i te whai mana ki ngā whakatau maha ki tērā he whakarite kei te ū ki ngā tukanga me ngā whakaritenga ture. Engari, i whakaputa māharahara anō ētahi mēnā he whaitake ā-utu ngā rerekētanga e marohitia ana. Ahakoa i te tautoko i te whakaaro mō tētahi ratonga whakatau wenewene hou, i kī anō rātou ko ngā raruraru o te kōti onāianei i ahu kē mai i te iti rawa o te pūtea.

I tua atu i te rerekētanga i raro, kāore ō mātou whakarerekētanga nui ki ngā Wāhanga 10 ki te 15 o te pire.

Te tohu i ngā Kaiwhakawā

E whakarite ana te whiti 427 me te 428 ki te tohu i ngā Kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kia mārama ai, e tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia ngā whiti 427 me 428 kia āta mārama ai ka tohua ngā Kaiwhakawā e te Kāwana-Tianara i runga i ngā tohutohu a te Minita mō ngā Whanaketanga Māori, i muri i te whitiwhiti kōrero me te Rōia Matua.

Ki ō mātou whakaaro ka whakaritea e tēnei rerekētanga ētahi māharahara ka whakawhitia e te pire te kawenga tūtohutanga mai i te Rōia Matua. Ko tā te whiti 428 he tuku noa i te mahi mō te pānui i ngā tukanga tohu kaiwhakawā ki te Rōia Matua. E hāngai ana tēnei ki te menemana o nā tata nei ki te Ture 1993, mā te whakamana i te Judicature Modernisation Bill, ka mana hei te 1 Poutūterangi 2017.

E tūtohutia ana ngā rerekētanga e whai ana ki ngā whiti 432, 434, me 435.

Wāhanga 16 (Ngā whakakoretanga me ngā menemana) me Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 1–12

Ka whakakorehia e te Wāhanga 16 Te Ture Whenua Māori 1993; te whakakore hoki me te menemana i ētahi atu whakaturetanga whāiti; te menemana i ngā Ture e toru e pā ana ki te mana me ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori; me te menemana i ngā Ture e toru e pā ana ki ngā take reiti me te wāriu. Kāore he rerekētanga ā mātou ki tēnei Wāhanga.

Ngā whakariterite i a Mangatū

Kei te mōhio mātou ko te whiti 483 me whiti 484, ka whakauru mai i tētahi wāhanga 52A hou ki te Rating Valuations Act 1998, e tuku i te mana ki ngā kaunihera ki te whakarite i te wāriu o ngā whenua Māori korehere mō ngā take reiti. Ko ēnei “whakariterite i a Mangatū”, e mōhiotia nei, i puta i tētahi whakatau a te Kōti Pīra i raro i te whakatau e mōhiotia ana ko te kēhi mō Mangatū.

Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 1–12

E whakarārangi ana Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti i ngā take rerekē, tae atu ki ngā whakaritenga, ngā take tukanga, me ngā menemana whai haere ka puta ki ētahi atu Ture. E tūtohu ana mātou i ngā rerekētanga iti e whai ake.

I te Pukapuka Āpiti 1, e tūtohu ana mātou kia whakaurua te whiti 12(4)(e) kia mārama ai kāore te Tarahiti o Tuaropaki e taka mai ki raro i te pou tarāwaho poari whakahaere hou; engari, ka haere tonu i raro i te pou tarāwaho onāianei e ai ki te whiti 23. He tino ahurei ngā āhuatanga o te Tarahiti o Tuaropaki kāore nei i te turakina e ngā whakahoutanga.

Ko tā Ngā Pukapuka Āpiti 2, whiti 12 he whakarite i ngā hui a ngā ariki whenua. E tūtohu ana mātou kia menemanahia te whiti-iti (1)(b), i te mea ki ō mātou whakaaro e mōhio whānuitia ana te kupu “proxy” i te “nominated representative”. E tūtohu ana mātou kia ūkuia te whiti-iti (2) mō te kōrama o tētahi hui; ki a mātou kāore he take nā te mea kei ētahi atu wāhi o te pire e whakarite ana i ngā taumata whai wāhi mai mō te tuku whakatau a ngā ariki whenua.

Te Tirohanga a te Tokoiti

Nā ngā Rōpū Reipa, Kākāriki, me Aotearoa Tuatahi tēnei Tirohanga a te Tokoiti i tāpae.

I te whakaurunga tuatahitanga o te Pire ki te Whare ko tō mātou whakapono kē ka whakaritea katoatia ngā raruraru e kore nei e tino whakamahia paitia ngā whenua Māori. E whakapono ana mātou kāore e tutuki i te Pire tēnei, otirā he kauneke kē i te rironga o ētahi o ngā kawenga e kawea ana e te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka tuku ki tētahi whakahaere hou kāore anō kia whakatūhia. Kāore hoki i tutuki i te Pire te whakarite i ngā tauārai e aukati ana i te whanaketanga o ngā whenua Māori e ai ki ngā kōrero i puta i ngā ariki whenua i ngā hui whitiwhiti kōrero puta noa i te motu.

I tae mai ngā tāpaetanga kōrero e whakahē ana i te Pire mai i ngā tāngata me ngā rōpū rerekē whānui kei roto i ngā mahi whakamahi, whakahaere whenua Māori mai i Ngā Tarahiti Whenua Māori (Tuaropaki), Ngā Kaporeihana Māori (Wakatū Incorporation), Ngā Tarahiti Whānau, Ngā Kaiwhakawā o Te Kōti Whenua Māori, Te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora, Te Kāhui Tika Tangata, Ngāi Tahu Māori Law Centre, NZ Law Society, PSA hei kaitaunaki mō ngā kaimahi Kōti Whenua Māori, Ahorangi Richard Boast, Ngā Rōia QC a Kensington Swan me ngā tāngata i whakaputa mai ki a mātou ngā raruraru mō te Pire.

Ko ngā tāpaetanga kōrero ā-tuhi a te hunga whakahē i kī;

  • Ahakoa te mahi a te Rōpū Arotake i puta ai tēnei Pire i tonoa ki te aromātai i te āhua o te whakaahei, te whakararuraru rānei o ngā ture onāianei i te ekenga o ngā tūmanako o ngā ariki whenua Māori, i whai te Rōpū ki te waihanga tūtohutanga e pā ana ki “me pēhea te āhua o te ture” kaua te whakaaro “he aha ngā hē o te ture onāianei, ā, me pēhea te whakatika. – Te Rōpū Wāhine Māori Toko i te Ora (kōwae 3.4, whārangi 3).

  • Ko ngā whakahē mō te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Ture onāianei e kī ana nō konei te tino pūtake e kore nei e whakamahia, e whakawhanakehia ai ngā whenua Māori kāore i te tika, kei te hē rawa, ā, kāore i te tautokona e ngā rangahau tōtika. – Ngāi Tahu Māori Law Centre (kōwae 5, whārangi 1).

  • Otirā ko te kaupapa kē o te Pire he whakamana i ngā ariki whenua kia nui ake tō rātou mana ki runga i ō rātou whenua me tō rātou rangatiratanga. Kua kite mātou i a mātou e arotake ana i te Pire mō te kaupapa o te tuku i ēnei tāpaetanga kōrero, me tino nui te whakapau wā me te kaha (kia maha ngā marama) me te whiwhi mākohakoha i te hunga tino matatau e mārama ai ki ngā iroirotanga o te Pire. I uaua hoki te whai mārama o ngā rōia e tino matatau ana ki te ture whenua Māori ki te Pire. – Ahorangi Richard Boast QC, Deborah Edmunds, Tai Ahu rāua ko David Jones, Kensington Swan Lawyers (kōwae 3.4, whārangi 3, kōwae 4.1, whārangi 4).

  • Kāore rawa he hua o te Pire ki te Tarahiti o Tuaropiki i roto i ngā whakarato ratonga ki ngā ariki kaipānga, i roto rānei i ana kaupapa arumoni ā-motu, ā-ao hoki. Nō reira kei te whai te Tarahiti o Tuaropiki i tētahi kupu tīpoka i te Pire e āhei tonu ana te whakatau tarahiti hei whakahaere i te Tarahiti o Tuaropiki i raro i Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 (Ture 1993) ānō nei kāore i whakakorehia te Ture 1993. – Tarahiti o Tuaropaki (kōwae 2, 3, whārangi 1).

  • Kei te whakahē anō a Wakatū i te Pire i te mea he tino iti rawa, kāore rānei, he wāriu ka hua ki ngā kaporeihana momoho, onāianei hoki. – Kaporeihana o Wakatū (kōwae 4 – 4i, whārangi 2).

  • Nā runga i te pūmau o te Kāwanatanga ki ngā tika tangata e pā ana ki te whakatinanatanga o te UNDRIP (te Whakapuakanga a Te UN mō ngā Tika a ngā Iwi Taketake), me whakaata, me kōkiri hoki te Pire i ngā mātāpono. Ko te whakaaro o Te Kāhui Tika Tangata, e whakaū ana te whakatinanatanga o te mātāpono UNDRIP o te whakaaetanga korehere, tōmua, mōhio hoki i te whakatau a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti kāore i tino tautokona te Pire e te iwi Māori. – Te Kāhui Tika Tangata (kōwae 23, 24, whārangi 8).

  • He mōrea nui te aronga o te Pire ki ngā mahi whakahou tikanga ture e pā ana ki te taonga tuku iho o te whenua Māori. Ka whakaiti te Pire i ngā tika rawa Māori onāianei. Kei te takarepa ngā whakapae matua e tūāpapa ana i te Pire. Kāore ētahi wāhanga o te Pire i te hāngai ki te tikanga Māori. Ka whakaauraki te Pire i te whenua Māori me te Kōti Whenua Māori. – Ngā Kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Whenua Māori (kōwae 2).

I kitea e tētahi kaitautoko i te Pire, e Me Uru Kahikatea, i roto i tā rātou tāpaetanga kōrero e toru tekau mā whitu ngā wāhi raruraru i roto i te Pire me ngā whāruarua e ono, tae atu ki ngā tono tauatanga e marohi ana me noho ēnei ki te Kōti Whenua Māori. I kōrero anō rātou mō te mahi a te Ratonga Whenua Māori ‘kāore anō kia whakamātauhia, kia tautuhia hoki’. I kī anō rātou kāore anō kia whakaritea e te Pire ‘ngā tino aukatitanga’ mō te whakamahi i te whenua, e kīia ana e ngā āpiha he ‘whakaahei’, ā, me eke ki tēnei. E whakaae ana mātou.

Kei te māharahara mātou kāore e whakamanahia ngā ariki whenua ki tērā e hiahiatia ana nā ngā uauatanga o te Pire. E whakapono ana mātou ko te hua pokerehū kē ka puta ko te whakatupe kē i ngā ariki whenua, otirā rātou te hunga he iti noa ngā pānga me ērā e noho ana i tawhiti me ērā kāore i te mōhiotia kei hea. I takea mai te Pire i ētahi whakapae kāore nei i āta rangahauhia ka mutu kāore i te whakaritea ngā aukatitanga i whakaaturia e ngā ariki whenua i ngā hui whitiwhiti kōrero.

Ngā whakahounga nui ki Ngā Tikanga Ture Whenua Māori

Koinei te arotake tuatahi matua o Te Ture Whenua 1993. Mai i te tīmatanga ko te whāinga kaupapa here matua ko te whakaraupapa mai i te whakamahinga o ngā whenua Māori kāore anō kia whakawhanakehia, te whakahāngai mai i te whakatōpūtanga o ngā pānga ariki whenua me ngā tukanga, hanganga hoki o ngā tuku whakatau ā-poari whakahaere.

Ko ngā whakahē tuatahi i whakaarahia e mātou i te pānuitanga tuatahi i aro ki te tino koretake o te tukunga i puta ai ēnei menemana, arā ko te tino kore whai tautoko whānui mō ngā huringa, ngā pānga pea ka pā ki ngā ariki whenua pānga iti e whakatupe nei pea i ō rātou pānga whenua tūpuna, te kore mārama, whai kaupapa hoki o te Ratonga Whenua Māori, te ngaro o ngā mōhiotanga ā-whakahaere mai i te Kōti Whenua Māori, te neke o te tino aro mai i te tiaki me te whakawhanake ki te pupuri me te whakamahinga.

Kei te ū tonu mātou ko te hiranga o ngā rerekētanga e marohitia ana me whakaū i ngā mātāpono o te tiaki, te hono whakapapa ki te whenua māori, te ahi-kā, me te pai ake o te āhei atu ki ngā pīhi whenua Māori mauraka, kia pai ake ngā tautoko ā-poari whakahaere mā ngā ariki whenua Māori, te whakapai ake i ngā wāhi tuku-whakahoki onāianei o te Public Works Act me te whakarite i te reiti me te wāriu i te whenua Māori hei whakapai ake i tōna kaha whakamahitanga.

Kāore anō kia tino whakaurua mai ēnei take maha hei ‘whakatikatanga’ nui i roto i te Pire. He maha ngā take nei kua tukuna ki ngā wāhanga mahi ‘whakaahei’, ā, kāore i te rawaka ngā whakaaturanga e tohu ana i te taumata whakaarotau e taea ai te anga whakamua tika ki tera i whakaarahia ai e ngā ariki whenua puta noa i te tukanga whitiwhiti kōrero.

Te Ratonga Whenua Māori

Ko tētahi tino take o te whakatutuki i ngā whāinga o tēnei Pire ko te waihangatanga o te Ratonga Whenua Māori hou, kei te wāhanga wānanga hoahoa i tēnei wā o te tukanga. Kei te mōhio mātou kei te whakaritea mai he mahere pakihi i tēnei wā mō te whakatūtanga o Ratonga Whenua Māori. Kāore i te mōhiotia te whaihua o te mahere pakihi i tēnei wā. Ki ō mātou whakaaro he mea taketake tēnei wāhanga mahi mō te whakarite i ngā whakapainga matua o te tukanga onāianei mō te tautoko i ngā ariki whenua, te whakarite i ngā take tauatanga, te waihanga hanganga poari whakahaere hou, te whakapai ake i te māiatanga o ngā mahi whakahaere me te whakatū i tētahi ratonga whakatau wenewene hou me te whai i te tikanga Māori hei uara ārahi. Engari kei te māharahara mātou nā te kore mahere pakihi i whakaūhia me ngā whakapaunga, nā te kore mahere whakatinanatanga whakawhiti, nā te kore ūnga hei kukume mai i ngā whāinga i roto i te wā tika me tētahi anga whakahaere mōrearea hei whakaiti i te tūpono pā mai o ngā take tē kitea e kore e momoho ai te whakatinanatanga.

E whakapono ana mātou me nui ake te aro ki te tautoko i te koronga mahi o te Ratonga Whenua Māori ki roto i Kōti Whenua Māori ināianei tonu. He nui ake te wāriu ka tukuna ki aua ariki whenua kāore i te whai whakaritenga ā-poari whakahaere me te whai wāhi ā-ture ki ngā wāhi whakatau wenewene.

Te Tauira Ariki Whenua Whai Mai me ngā taumata tuku whakatau

Kei te māharahara mātou he uaua rawa, he pōkaikaha hoki ngā wāhi e pā ana ki te Tauira Ariki Whenua Whai Wāhi Mai me ngā taumata. E rua ngā take o tēnei:

  1. Mēnā kāore e ōrite ngā āhuatanga i waenga i ngā ariki whenua me ngā taumata tuku whakatau nā te whakamāramatanga o te ‘ariki whenua whai wāhi mai’
  2. Mēnā ka āwhina ngā rerekētanga e marohitia ana i ngā ariki whenua noho momotu mai ana ki te whakariterite me te whai wāhi mai ki te tukanga tuku whakatau mō te poari whakahaere, te rīhi, te whakawhiti, te tuku o ō rātou whenua, mēnā ka pai ake ēnei kawenga ki ngā tōpū pānga nui ake rānei me te whakatōpū mai ki tētahi rangatōpū tēnā i tētahi tauira ā-whānau.

E whakapono ana mātou kāore i rawaka te tuku mōhiohio mai hei whakamārama i ngā utu me ngā whakatakotoranga utu ka taea e pā ana ki te Pire. E whakapono ana mātou kia kaua e noho ripa tauārai te hiranga o te utu, taumata utu rānei i te āhei mai o ngā ariki whenua. Kei te rangirua mātou mēnā kua āta whakaaroarohia te take utu e pā ana ki te tauira whakarato a te Ratonga Whenua Māori, ā, ka noho mōrea tēnei ki te whakatinanatanga. Ahakoa i whakamōhiotia mai mātou mō ngā hua o te tūāpapa raraunga hei whakapai ake i te tuari me te whakamahinga o ngā mōhiohio e te Ratonga Whenua Māori, kāore he taipitopito mō tēnei kaupapa. I kīia mai mātou ko Toitū Te Whenua kei te ārahi i ngā mahi o te tūāpapa raraunga mōhiohio, ka mutu me whai whakaūtanga tahua nui, ā, kāore anō tēnei kia whakaūhia e te Kāwanatanga.

Whāngai, Rangatiratanga me ētahi atu Āhuatanga Tikanga Māori

E whakaae ā-mātāpono mātou ki te kaupapa o te pupuri whenua i roto i te whānau me te hapū e whakapapa nei ki te whenua me te whakamārama i ngā tika ki te whāngai e ai ki te tikanga Māori. Engari, ki tō mātou whakapono ka taea noatia tēnei mā tētahi menemana māmā ki te Ture 1993.

He maha ngā mahi ka waihangatia hei tautoko, hei āwhina hoki i ngā whānau me ō rātou whenua. I te mea ko te kaupapa o te Pire he whakamana i te whānau me te rangatiratanga, ka taea te kī he whāiti rawa, ā, tērā pea he tuku mana ki tētahi atu ‘rōpū’. Ko ētahi o ngā mahi ko te kaiwhakarite, kaitiaki, kaiwhakamarumaru, he āhuatanga ēnei kāore i te tino mārama ki ētahi Māori.

I whai taringa atu mātou ki ngā Kaporeihana Māori, Ahu Whenua me ngā Tarahiti Māori i noho rangatira ai i raro i te Ture onāianei. Kei te ū ngā mahi a aua whakahaere anō e anga whakamua ai rātou me ō rātou tūmanako i raro i ngā whakatau tarahiti onāianei, e ai rānei ki ā rātou tūtohinga tarahiti. Mā te whai kia mau tonu taua aronga, e whakaae ana mātou ka taea te rangatiratanga i raro i te Ture onāianei.

I tohe rātou mō ngā menemana ki ngā ture onāianei, kaua te whakahou katoa i ngā mātāpono o te Ture, ā, kei te whakaae mātou ki tērā whakaaro.

Resource Management Act 1991 me te Local Government (Rating) Act 2002

I rongo matau e whirinaki ana te whāinga o te Pire ki te tuku rangatiratanga ki “ngā ariki whenua” ki ngā Ture i runga ake. Kei te mōhio mātou kei ngā Kaunihera ā-Takiwā, ā-Rohe hoki te mana whakamahi i ngā whenua Māori mā te kaupapa here Reiti i ngā whenua Māori a ngā kaunihera takitahi. E taunaki ana mātou kia tirohia te whaihua o te Tauākī Kaupapa Here ā-Motu mō te Rēti Whenua Māori.

Kātahi ka nui ake ō mātou māharahara i te mea kei te whakahoutia e te Kāwanatanga ngā Ture e rua, ā, kāore anō kia tae mai he kōrero tohutohu mō ngā pānga tūpono o aua whakahounga ki te Pire.

Te whakakorenga o ngā tūranga Pou Whakahaere i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori

I whakaarahia e ngā kaitāpae kōrero ō rātou māharahara mō te pūtea mōhio me ngā wheako o te whakapapa whenua Māori me ngā mōhiotanga whakahaere o ngā kaiwhakahaere e noho ana i te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nā te rironga o ngā tūranga mahi onā tata nei i Te Tāhū o Te Ture i rapu whakaaetanga mātou mai i ngā āpiha kāore he pānga kino o te rironga o ngā pūkenga nā te whakakorenga o ngā tūranga kaiwhakahaere i roto i te Kōti Whenua Māori puta noa i te motu, ki te Ratonga Whenua Māori e marohitia ana. I whakamanahia ā mātou tono whakaaetanga. Ehara koinei ō mātou whakaaro. Ko tā mātou kē kia waiho ngā kaupapa turaki tūranga kia mārō te haere o ngā mahi a te Ratonga Whenua Māori.

Te tukanga komiti

I pōuri mātou i te kitenga kāore i tae tuihono mai ngā tāpaetanga kōrero ā-tuhi i te wā tika; kāore i tutuki he tātaritanga mō te wāhi i hiahia ngā kaitāpae kōrero ki te tū; kāore hoki i whakamahia ngā pūkenga o ngā mema Komiti kia taea ai ngā wāhi whakawā tika mō te hunga i hiahia ki te tū; kāore ētahi kaitāpae kōrero i whakaritea ki te tū i tae atu, ā, ko ētahi i hiahia ki te tū kāore i whakaritea ki te tū. Kāore i mārama te whakaritenga wā mō ia kaitāpae kōrero mai i te tīmatanga, ā, i rangirua mō te kaitāpae kōrero me ngā mema o te komiti.

Nā ngā rerekētanga nui ki te Pire mai i te whakawātanga o ngā tāpaetanga kōrero, e tino taunaki ana mātou me whai wā ngā kaitāpae kōrero ki te arotake i ngā rerekētanga ki te pire. He maha ngā rerekētanga ki te putanga hou o te Pire i whakahoutia, ā, ka whai hua te komiti whiriwhiri mēnā i whai wā ngā kaitāpae kōrero ki te tuku urupare mai mō ngā pānga o aua rerekētanga e ai ki ngā māharahara i whakaarahia e rātou.

Kei te kite anō mātou kei te noho tonu te mana tango whenua Māori korehere i raro i te Public Works Act, ā, kāore tēnei i whakaritea e tēnei Pire, ahakoa i whakaarahia e ngā kaitāpae kōrero tokomaha puta noa i te tukanga whitiwhiti kōrero.

Ko te kaupapa matua tuatahi o ngā mahi whakahou whenua Māori ko te whakamaru i ngā toenga whenua Māori iti kei raro tonu i te Māori kia kore ai e ngaro, e riro atu rānei.

He whakarāpopoto

Mai i ngā take e rārangi mai ana i runga e whakapono ana mātou kāore i eke te whāinga o te Pire ki tērā i tūmanakohia hei whakapai ake i te whakamahinga o ngā whenua Māori mā te waihanga i tētahi taiao whakahaere ‘ā-ariki whenua’. Engari he whakaiti kē i ngā mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori me te whakatū i te Ratonga Whenua Māori e marohitia ana. He whakahaere hou tēnei kāore anō kia whakamāramahia, kia whai pūtea, kia whakamātauhia rānei. Ko te hua kāore e ōrite ngā āhuatanga i waenga i ngā ariki whenua mā ngā taumata tuku whakatau a ngā ‘ariki whenua whai wāhi mai’ e tuwhera ana kia riro atu anō pea he whenua, ā, me te kore e whakarite i ngā raruraru e aukati ana i te whakawhanaketanga o te whenua Māori (whenua mauraka, rori pepa, ngā whenua i tangohia i raro i te Public Works Act and Ratings) i whakaarahia mai e ngā ariki whenua puta noa i te tukanga whitiwhiti kōrero. He maha ngā rerekētanga o te Pire, he kiato, he matatini rawa te whai haere. Mēnā i whai wāhi ngā kaitāpae kōrero ki te whakaputa i ō rātou whakaaro mō ēnei rerekētanga ka whaihua te komiti whiriwhiri i te mea he ‘tirohanga’ hou ēnei hei āwhina i tāna whakatau mēnā i ū te Pire ki tōna whāinga tūturu.

Nā ēnei take i whakaaroarohia e mātou, kāore i te tautokona e mātou te Pire me tā mātou tūtohu kia kaua ia e anga whakamua i tēnei wā.

Āpititanga

Tukanga komiti

I tukuna te Pire o Ture Whenua Māori ki te komiti i te 11 o Haratua 2016. Ko te rā kati mō ngā tāpaetanga kōrero ko te 14 o Pipiri 2016. I whiwhi, i whakaaroarohia hoki e mātou ngā tāpaetanga kōrero 154 mai i ngā rōpū me ngā tāngata. I rongo mātou i ngā whakaaturanga ā-waha a ngā kaitāpae kōrero e 47 i ngā hui i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, Tauranga, Waitaha, me Tāmariki Makaurau, me Te Whanganui-a-Tara hoki.

I whiwhi tohutohu mātou mai i Te Puni Kōkiri me Toitū te Whenua.

Ngā mema o te komiti

Tutehounuku Korako (Tiamana)

Te Kahurangi Chester Borrows

Mārama Davidson

Kelvin Davis

Mārama Fox

Joanne Hayes

Te Kahurangi Nanaia Māhuta

Pita Paraone

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Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill

Government Bill

126—2

As reported from the Māori Affairs Committee

Commentary

Recommendation

The Māori Affairs Committee has examined Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill and recommends that it be passed with the amendments shown.

Introduction

This bill seeks to repeal and replace the current law relating to Māori land, Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993.

The bill proposes a new approach that aims to increase the ability of Māori land owners to use their land by empowering them to make decisions by and for themselves, supported by an owner-focussed Māori land service. At the same time, it aims to maintain, and even to strengthen, the protections that currently exist for the retention of Māori land for the benefit of future generations (a taonga tuku iho) by virtue of whakapapa.

The current Act still contains provisions that date back more than 100 years, to the Native Land Act 1909. These provisions cover issues such as surveys and leasing. In addition to reforming the legal and institutional framework relating to Māori land, the bill would completely refresh and modernise the legislation’s drafting and style.

Core principles

One of the bill’s core principles is that tikanga Māori is central in deciding matters that involve Māori land. The committee agrees with advice that codifying tikanga would be an overly prescriptive interpretation of values and principles when applied to Māori land. We believe that these are best left for whānau, hapū, and iwi to determine. Under the bill, for example, tikanga Māori would be called on in determining the preferred recipients of Māori land, relationships of descent, and the determination for a dispute resolution model.

All of the core principles that would underpin the new legal framework for Māori land are set out in clause 3 of the bill. We endorse these principles, and will not repeat them here.

Background

The bill’s development has entailed extensive consultation, including the circulation of an exposure draft for submissions, which is not usually done. After taking into account the feedback from submissions, and from numerous reports, consultations, and hui, the version of the bill as introduced to the House is the result of 16 drafts over a period of some 30 months. The consultation process was criticised by some submitters who believed that not enough time had been given to consider the proposed changes, and their consequent impact on Māori land owners.

The bill originated from a first-principles review of the current law by an independent review panel in 2012. The panel was established in response to longstanding calls for reform of the 1993 Act, dating back to the late 1990s. We heard a view during the submissions process that the panel was charged with reviewing the Act, and instead recommended that new legislation was needed. As the panel stated in its final report,

The structure of Te Ture Whenua Māori Act, with a primary focus on the Māori Land Court and its jurisdiction, does not lend itself well to a new framework in which we consider the focus should very clearly be on Māori land protection and utilisation and empowerment of Māori land owners and their decision-making.

While the bill would retain the Māori Land Court, it would make some changes to its jurisdiction, and transfer some functions to a new Māori Land Service. Whereas the current 1993 Act has the court as its central focus, the reforms proposed in this bill would place the legislative focus on the land itself and the rights and authority of the owners. Some of us believe that the extent of the changes create a bias towards utilisation of land, and consequently may disenfranchise land owner interests.

Size and structure of the legislation

We agree with the many submitters who have commented that the bill is large and complex, making it difficult to understand. It is in 16 Parts, with 12 Schedules.

The bill seeks to set out the law relating to Māori land, and offers the benefit of providing more certainty for the owners of Māori land, and others affected by the law.

In order for the new arrangements to be clearer and easier for Māori land owners to use, a period of familiarisation would be essential. As we discuss later, the new arrangements would need to be thoroughly explained to users before the legislation came into force.

The bill would become three new Acts

It is intended that the bill would be divided into three separate pieces of legislation before enactment, reflecting the three main areas of change.

  • The overall legal framework for Māori land, which is contained in Parts 1–9 and Schedules 1–4 of the bill, would become Te Ture Whenua Māori Act.

  • The institutional arrangements and machinery-of-justice provisions for the Māori Land Court and the Māori Appellate Court, currently in Parts 10–15 and Schedules 5–7 of this bill, would become Te Kooti Whenua Māori Act.

  • Consequential and other changes to existing legislation, in Part 16 and Schedules 8–12 of this bill, would become Te Ture Whenua Māori (Repeals and Amendments) Act.

We consider this a sensible approach. It would keep the two main Acts—dealing with the law relating to Māori land, and the court arrangements—separate and avoid cluttering them with consequential changes to other legislation. We consider that having the court-related provisions in a separate Act from the law relating to Māori land is appropriate, since the Māori Land Court also derives jurisdiction from several other statutes.

The wider reform programme

The bill forms part of a wider programme of work on reforming the current arrangements for Māori land. It sets out the basis for new arrangements that are still in the process of being developed. Understandably, this has caused uncertainty for us, and for submitters, in evaluating how the new approach would work in practice, and therefore in deciding how we feel about the bill.

Māori Land Service

In particular, the bill provides for a number of functions intended to be provided by a proposed new Māori Land Service. This service, which is still under development, would take over some of the functions currently carried out by the Māori Land Court. This new organisation would provide very important services for the owners of Māori land, including:

  • supporting owners in their decision-making, the establishment of governance arrangements, and arrangements for succession

  • administering the new dispute resolution service provided for under the bill

  • maintaining the record of Māori land ownership, and providing associated information and registry services

  • helping to promote the utilisation of Māori land.

Related work to enable better use of Māori land

Work is also under way on trying to find solutions to several obstacles that owners of Māori land currently face, so they can make better use of their land.

These parallel lines of work include trying to solve problems with landlocked land and unformed (“paper”) roads; to improve the way the Public Works Act 1981 affects Māori freehold land; and to further improve the Local Government (Rating) Act 2002 to ensure fairness in how Māori freehold land is valued and the level of rates charged. Several government organisations are involved in this work, including Te Puni Kōkiri, the Ministry of Justice, and Land Information New Zealand. The committee is advised that no dates have been set for the completion of these parallel lines of work.

How the bill fits into the wider programme

One difficulty we have faced in examining the bill is that these associated aspects of the reform programme are still being worked on, so detailed information is not yet available. We spent time during our consideration of the bill questioning officials about how the Māori Land Service might work in practice, how soon it would be set up, what its structure and staffing might look like, and how well it would be funded.

We were provided with some useful background and explanation, which we will make available along with this report. In essence, it was explained to us that:

  • the bill sets out the basic elements of what the Māori Land Service would do (such as services to land owners, and help with dispute resolution)

  • the bill therefore needs to proceed first, in order to provide the legal basis on which the new organisation would be built

  • basic design work for the Māori Land Service is under way, involving much consultation with owners around the country about the services they need

  • a key milestone will be decisions on a business case for the new service around April 2017; we believe the funding already provided for design work gives an indication of the Government’s commitment regarding future funding, but we note that ongoing funding for implementation is not yet determined

  • the timing envisaged in the bill allows for an unusually long period between the time it is passed into law and the final commencement date of 1 October 2018; this would allow the most important aspects of the Māori Land Service to be up and running by the time the new Act took effect. Some of us note that adequate funding would be required to ensure optimum implementation

  • enhancements to the service, particularly those involving IT components, would be phased in over a five-year period after that; the aim is to have a durable design, fit for the needs of future generations

  • it is unclear at this stage where the service would sit in relation to existing agencies, or where its staff would come from; while the service would need to call on existing institutional and whakapapa knowledge, it would also require a cultural shift to focus more on finding integrated solutions for landowners. We note that current re-structuring of the Ministry of Justice poses a risk to the loss of institutional knowledge in the establishment of the Māori Land Service.

We would have liked a clearer “dashboard” of the timing and plans for the service. However, we understand why this cannot be provided until after the legal framework in the bill is finalised, and the Government makes further decisions.

We also asked many questions about what is being done to enable Māori land owners to overcome current obstacles, and how soon solutions might be found. We were told that various provisions in the bill should make it easier for owners to make decisions about use of their land, and work is continuing on this “enabling” work. However, we were advised that some matters such as landlocked land and paper roads may need considerable time to resolve.

Our consideration of the bill and submissions

We have read and considered carefully the submissions of more than 150 groups and individuals on the bill, and heard 47 submissions from those who wished to discuss their views in person with us. There were 15 submissions in support of the bill, 39 opposed, and 98 neither supported or opposed the bill. Some of us believe that these metrics may not be an accurate reflection of the depth of concern, due to the density of the bill, and potentially underpins a lack of engagement with formal processes.

We have also spent considerable time questioning officials to gain a better understanding about how various aspects of the new arrangements would work in practice. This has given us some reassurance, but more information would need to be disseminated to give future users of the legislation a similar degree of comfort.

A users’ guide will be essential

We consider it vital that information and guidance be provided about the new legal and institutional framework if the bill is passed, so that people would be familiar and comfortable with it by the time it came into force.

Many submitters expressed unease to us about the proposed reforms. It seems that many of their concerns come from uncertainty about how the new approach would work in practice. This uncertainty is no doubt partly because of the timing issues we have discussed—that is, because the bill is progressing through the House while work is still being done on key aspects of the reform programme: developing and establishing the Māori Land Service, in particular.

In this respect we think it is valuable that the bill envisages an unusually long lead-in period, with 18 months allowed for between Royal assent and commencement. In our view, this period will be critical to ensure that people are well informed about the new law and feel comfortable about using the new approaches and services.

We recommend that every effort be made to provide timely information and guidance to those who would be affected by the legislation. We suggest this include a users’ guide to the legislative framework and the new Māori Land Service, and a concerted effort at publicising practical information about the new regime. Care should be taken to convey the information in a way that is easy to understand, including diagrams and infographics.

Recommended amendments

We are recommending numerous changes to the bill in response to issues raised by submitters, and our own scrutiny. We believe these changes would fit better with the core principles underlying the bill, improve its workability, and avoid unintended consequences.

The rest of this commentary discusses the main amendments we recommend to the bill as introduced. We do not discuss minor or technical amendments.

Part 1—Preliminary provisions

Interpretation

Clause 5 defines various terms used throughout the bill. It should be noted that the term “tikanga Māori” is not defined. We concur with this approach, as we agree that the appropriate application of tikanga Māori in any particular situation would be something to be determined on the basis of evidence—that is, by reference to the customs and practices of the relevant whānau, hapū or iwi—rather than as a question of law. We propose the following amendments to the definitions.

The bill as introduced provides that “participating owners” means the owners of land who participate in making a decision. We recommend clarifying the meaning of the term “participate”, to make it clear that it would include not only people who vote on a proposal, but also people who are involved in the decision-making process, even if they abstain from voting. This could include attending a meeting in person, or being involved by Skype or other communication technology.

The term “whāngai” (an individual adopted by Māori customary adoption) is defined in the bill by reference to the tikanga of the relevant iwi or hapū. As we discuss later in the context of descent relationships (clause 8), we consider that this raises potential for uncertainty. We recommend that the reference to iwi be dropped from the definition, and that whāngai status should be determined by the tikanga of the relevant hapū or whānau. In the event of doubt or inconsistency between the two, we consider that the tikanga of the whānau should prevail.

Association with land in accordance with tikanga Māori

We recommend inserting clause 7A to make the intent of the bill clearer as to who is deemed to be associated with particular land. From our discussions with submitters, it appears that provisions relating to descent relationships and eligible beneficiaries (for example, in clauses 96 and 246) could be interpreted as requiring someone to verify a direct whakapapa descent relationship to a tupuna who held a customary interest in the land pre-1840. This was not the intention.

In line with the core principles of the bill, and to avoid complexities involved in tracing lines of descent and unintended consequences arising from historical anomalies (such as the allocation of land in Mangakino, in 1925, and land in Palmerston North, in 1866 and 1867, to people from other parts of the country), we propose that assessments of association would not need to go back further than the bill’s commencement.

Descent relationships determined by tikanga Māori

Clause 8 provides that relationships of descent that involve adopted children (whether as whāngai or under the Adoption Act 1955) are to be determined by tikanga Māori. Tikanga Māori would determine whether they are regarded as descendants of their adoptive parents, their birth parents, or both. In deciding succession and preferred recipients under the bill, tikanga Māori would override anything to the contrary in the Adoption Act. This would be a change from the current Act.

A Māori Land Court order would be required as proof that a whāngai relationship exists under the relevant tikanga Māori. We understand that this would normally be a simple process where there is no opposition. If the relationship was challenged, the matter would be referred to the new dispute resolution service. If this did not resolve the issue, it could be referred back to the court.

Several submitters expressed support for using tikanga to determine whāngai relationships and legal adoptions, considering this more appropriate in legal adoptions than the legal fiction of a court deeming the relationship to be one of descent by birth. However, submitters raised several points that we believe justify some refinements to this provision.

In the bill as introduced, clause 8 states that the tikanga of the relevant iwi or hapū would determine whether a whāngai relationship would be treated as a relationship of descent. As noted earlier, we consider that the tikanga of the relevant whānau or hapū is more appropriate than iwi for determining whāngai status, and recommend that reference to iwi be removed from clause 8(2). In the event of inconsistency, we recommend that the tikanga of the whānau should prevail over that of the hapū.

Second, we consider that clause 8(2)(a) raises the possibility that historical relationships would have to be proved at every link in the chain of title. We wish to avoid introducing such complexity, and accordingly recommend inserting new clause 7A.

Third, we recommend an amendment to clarify clause 8(3)(c). It is not the intention that all birth relationships would need to prove a tikanga-based association. This should only be a question if the birth relationship was deemed by the Adoption Act to be “a relationship of a different kind”. Only in this case should a court order be required to determine the relationship.

Part 2—Whenua Māori / Māori land and whenua tāpui

Part 2 of the bill deals with the definition and status of Māori customary land and Māori freehold land. It also contains provisions relating to whenua tāpui, which are referred to in the 1993 Act as Māori reservations.

Apart from some technical amendments, the main changes we propose in this part are in relation to clause 39, which deals with the administering body appointed for a whenua tāpui.

Administering bodies

We recommend that the board of an administering body should comprise at least four members, rather than three as in the bill as introduced. This would ensure that decisions could not be taken by a quorum of only two people, or potentially just one person.

We recommend inserting new clause 39A to give the court the power to make an order restraining the administering body of a whenua tāpui. This would provide protection against the possibility of recklessness, incompetence, or fraud, or of an administering body acting inconsistently with the purposes of the whenua tāpui or in breach of conditions or restrictions.

Subpart 3—Kawenata tiaki whenua

We recommend that the provisions relating to kawenata tiaki whenua (a type of covenant) be moved into Part 2 from Part 4 of the bill as introduced, as they are similar in nature to whenua tāpui. They would form new clauses 44A to 44C.

Part 3—Ownership interests in Māori freehold land

Decision-making by owners of Māori freehold land

Clauses 51 to 57, together with Schedule 2, set out the processes and thresholds for agreement that would make decisions binding on all owners of Māori freehold land. The most important decisions would need to be made by a specified proportion of all of the owners. Other decisions, that did not involve permanent alienation of the land, could be made by a specified proportion of the owners who take part in making the decision. The bill refers to them as “participating owners”.

Clause 51 sets out various thresholds of participation required for different decisions by participating owners. It also provides for a second decision-making process if the required thresholds of participation are not met. (We are suggesting a change to this second-chance mechanism, which we explain later.)

We heard a range of submissions about the proposed decision-making arrangements. Several submitters supported the participating owners approach, preferring it to the subjective criteria in the current Act. They said it would overcome difficulties about getting a quorum at meetings and make it easier for owners to make decisions about their land. Various submitters commented on the levels of the thresholds: some suggested they were too high, and others too low.

We do not propose any changes to the participation thresholds. We think they are reasonable when combined with the second-chance mechanism (with our proposed amendment to it) and provisions that would allow owners—including absentee owners—to participate in decisions by proxy, or by phone or electronic means. On balance, we think the bill would make decision-making easier while still protecting the interests of absentee owners.

However, we agree with submitters that the clauses relating to decision-making are complex and confusing, and should be made clearer. We suggest the following changes.

Participation thresholds for decisions

To make the bill easier to understand, we recommend simplifying clause 51 by moving some of the provisions to new clauses 51A and 51B. For reference purposes, we also recommend inserting clause 51C which contains a table setting out all the decision-making thresholds.

Second-chance decision-making process

Clause 51(8) allows for a second decision-making process to be commenced if the participation threshold for a decision has not been met. This second-chance process would allow a binding decision to be made by a majority of the owners who participate in a meeting where a decision is proposed. We suggest an amendment to address concerns that this process could allow a small group of engaged owners to make far-reaching decisions affecting all owners of the land.

We recommend amending the process to specify that any decision made using the second decision-making process would be subject to review by the Māori Land Court, to ensure that it met the principles underpinning the legislation. The decision would not take effect unless the court confirmed not only that the decision complied with Parts 1 to 9 but also that the court was satisfied that the decision would help the owners to retain, control, occupy, or develop their land for the benefit of present and future owners.

Owners under 18 years of age

Clause 52 deals with owners of Māori freehold land who are less than 18 years old and who do not have a kaiwhakamarumaru appointed to manage their interests. It specifies that a minor in this situation could not vote on decisions and would not be counted as a participating owner in decision-making.

We recognise that this provision is based on general property law, which holds that a minor does not have contractual ability. Nevertheless, we consider that the provision is unduly restrictive, as it could allow the interests of a minor to be ignored even if they held a significant majority of the land. We recommend amending clause 52(1)(b) so that it would also allow voting on behalf of the minor by a property manager who had been appointed under the Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act 1988 to manage any of the minor’s property.

Whānau trusts

Subpart 2 of Part 3 contains provisions about the establishment, operation, and termination of whānau trusts. Such trusts have been a successful tool under the current Act for whānau to collectively hold and manage their land interests.

We recommend some amendments in clause 58 to make it clearer how whānau trusts could be established.

We recommend inserting clause 70A so that the court could allow a beneficiary to withdraw their interest from the trust in exceptional circumstances. This provision is intended to assist in situations such as a trust becoming dysfunctional because relationships within the whānau have irretrievably broken down (for example, as a result of domestic violence).

We recommend various amendments in clause 71 and the insertion of a new clauses 71A to 71C to simplify the decision-making process provided for, and to provide for other trust property to be dealt with in proportion to other beneficial interests in the land.

Our recommended new clause 72A would set out responsibilities of the chief executive and Māori Trustee in respect of trust money in the event that a whānau trust was terminated.

Kaiwhakamarumaru

Subpart 3 of Part 3 deals with kaiwhakamarumaru, a person appointed by the court to manage the property of a minor or other owner needing protection. We recommend some changes in these provisions to improve the way they would operate. These changes include recommending that clause 83(1) be amended to clarify that charges by kaiwhakamarumaru would be properly incurred.

Part 4—Dispositions of Māori freehold land and other land

Meaning of preferred recipient and preferred entity

Part 4 of the bill deals with dispositions of Māori freehold land. ["Disposition" is a defined term that covers a range of possible land dealings, such as a sale, gift, lease, mortgage, easement, partition, or other boundary adjustment.] It would continue the approach under the 1993 Act of limiting those who may acquire, or have preference to acquire, Māori freehold land or land interests. However, it would change some key terminology (from “preferred classes of alienees” to “preferred recipients” and “preferred entities”). It would also increase the emphasis on tikanga Māori by requiring every preferred recipient to have an association with the land in accordance with tikanga Māori. The 1993 Act does not require this association in the case of the children and descendants of owners, which perpetuates a historical anomaly that enabled non-Māori to acquire ownership interests in Māori freehold land. In many cases, depending on the applicable tikanga, this would entail a whakapapa connection, but this is not a requirement under the bill because that would impose a legal constraint on tikanga.

From our discussions with submitters, we have noted that the wording of clause 96(1)(a) could be interpreted as requiring a preferred recipient to have a direct whakapapa descent relationship to a tupuna who held a customary interest in the land pre-1840. It was not the intention of the provision to require people to verify their descent back that far.

We therefore recommend replacing clause 96(1)(c) with a more general provision. Our proposal would ensure that a “preferred recipient” would encompass the children, grandchildren, and other descendants of any Māori who is an owner of the land on the legislation’s commencement date. We believe this would avoid unintended consequences arising from historical anomalies, while remaining true to the core principles on which the bill is based.

Lease of a parcel of land for general purposes

Clause 128 deals with the leasing of a parcel of Māori freehold land for a purpose other than residential housing.

Short-term leases

For leases of 52 years or less, we consider that there is a misalignment between the bill’s proposed threshold for owner agreement (at least 75 percent of participating owners’ shares, regardless of the term of the lease) and the graduated threshold levels that currently apply under the Māori Assembled Owners Regulations 1995. We recommend amending this clause to specify graduated owner-agreement thresholds, depending on the term of the proposed lease, to better align it with the regulations. This change would mean that participating owners could not commit the land to a lease for a term longer than 7 years. Terms longer than 7 years would require the agreement of a proportion of all owners. We propose no changes to the rules that would apply where there is a governance body.

Long-term leases

We do not propose any changes regarding long-term leases. This clause would allow a governance body to agree to long-term leases (those with terms over 52 years) and decide any restrictions on their terms, within an overall maximum lease period of 99 years. The governance body would first need to have been authorised to enter into long-term leases by owners holding over 50 percent of the shares in the land. This is the same threshold as under the current Act, but the bill also offers owners the possibility of setting a higher threshold for owner agreement.

Where there is no governance body, the same threshold for owner agreement and 99-year maximum lease term would apply, but any lease for a term longer than 25 years would be conditional on confirmation by the Māori Land Court that it complies with the requirements of Parts 1 to 9.

Sub-leases and self-leases

To simplify matters for owners, we recommend amending clause 128(9)(b) to allow owners to agree to future sub-leasing at the same time as they agree to an original lease. We also recommend amending clause 128(10) to allow for a self-lease to be assigned or sub-let to a third party if there is the level of owner agreement that would have been required had the original lease not been a self-lease.

Licenses or profits à prendre

Clause 132 deals with the granting of a licence or “profit à prendre” (a right to take something from another’s land, such as trees, crops, or minerals). In the absence of a governance body, it would require the agreement of owners holding more than a 50 percent share in the land. We recommend amending this clause to specify graduated owner-agreement thresholds, depending on the term of the proposed licence or profit à prendre. This would mean that when there is no governance body the thresholds are aligned with the new thresholds we recommend above for leases.

Kawenata tiaki whenua

As noted earlier, we recommend that clauses 137 to 139 be moved from Part 4 into Part 2 of the bill (as new clauses 44A to 44C). As kawenata (covenants) are similar in nature to whenua tāpui, the provisions more logically fit within that Part.

Part 5—Authority to act in relation to Māori freehold land

This Part contains provisions that would authorise certain persons other than the owners of Māori freehold land to act for certain purposes in relation to the land. These may be governance bodies or agents. Agents are referred to in the bill as kaiwhakahaere. Part 6 and Schedules 1, 3, and 4 are also relevant to the new governance model.

Submitters generally support the new governance model, and the flexibility it offers for governance agreements to be tailored to suit owners’ needs. Rangatōpū would be a new option for owners wanting to establish their own entity to be their governance body instead of appointing entities such as the Māori Trustee, Public Trust, or a trustee company. There is support for the proposal that existing trusts and Māori incorporations would not be required to transition into the new rangatōpū model.

Appointing a governance body

Clause 157 deals with the appointment of a governance body for a parcel of Māori freehold land. We recommend some amendments to allow for owners of several parcels of land to combine their land under one governance arrangement.

We recommend inserting new clause 159A to make it clear that a governance body would also need to comply with any obligations imposed under other law that might apply to it.

Tax matters

We recommend inserting new clause 173A covering tax matters for Māori incorporations and trusts that choose to become rangatōpū. These provisions would ensure that there were no unintended tax consequences as a result of the transfer of assets and liabilities to the rangatōpū.

Revoking the appointment of a governance body

Clause 174 would allow the owners of a parcel of Māori freehold land to revoke the appointment of a governance body for that land if 75 percent of the participating owners at a meeting voted to do so.

As introduced, this provision could create uncertainty and undermine the ability of a governance body to operate effectively, because the process could be triggered by a single owner. We see potential for disruption to governance arrangements if a single owner were able to trigger the process for revoking a governance agreement. We therefore recommend amending clause 174 to specify that a decision-making process to revoke a governance agreement would need to be proposed by at least 15 owners who collectively hold at least 5 percent of the beneficial interest in the land.

Court may review certain decisions of owners relating to governance bodies

Clause 188 would allow the court to review decisions of owners to appoint or revoke the appointment of a governance body. A decision could only be set aside on grounds of procedural irregularity.

We recommend amending clause 188(2) so that an application to review such a decision would need to be proposed by at least 15 owners who collectively hold at least 5 percent of the beneficial interest in the land.

Responsibilities of kaiwhakahaere

The bill provides for the Māori Land Court to appoint a person as a kaiwhakahaere to carry out a specific purpose relating to a parcel of Māori freehold land. This is similar to the court’s jurisdiction to appoint an agent under the 1993 Act. We recommend adding paragraph 191(2)(ba) to require the kaiwhakahaere to keep a written record of actions taken on the owners’ behalf.

Part 6—Operation of governance bodies

Part 6 of the bill would regulate the operation of governance bodies. Submitters welcomed the way the reforms would place greater and clearer responsibilities on governance bodies and kaitiaki. This would include stricter eligibility criteria; and clearer duties and responsibilities that would be more like those of company directors and trustees.

Submitters stressed, however, that governance bodies and kaitiaki would need to have a clear understanding of the content and implications of the new legislation. This brings us back to the point we have made earlier about the vital importance of providing adequate information and guidance about the new law before it came into force.

Powers, duties, and responsibilities

We recommend inserting new paragraph 202(1)(aa) to include an express requirement for governance bodies to hold and manage an asset base for the benefit of the owners of the land being managed. Similarly, new subclause 203(aa) would insert an express requirement for a kaitiaki of a governance body to act for a proper purpose.

A governance body could sell a parcel of land only if it had first found replacement land that it would use the proceeds on (clause 104(3)). Clause 207(2) would require the governance body to go through with acquiring and/or improving the replacement land. We propose an amendment to allow a little more flexibility. We recommend amending clause 207(2) so that, if the board had failed to acquire the intended replacement land after making all reasonable efforts to do so, it could use the proceeds from the sale to acquire and/or improve other land of a similar quality.

Requests for information

We recommend amending clause 214, subclauses (4), (6), and (7), to allow a governance body to charge owners a reasonable fee for providing information. It would need to explain the charge, and an owner would be able to apply to the court if they considered the charge unreasonable.

Powers of Māori Land Court in relation to governance bodies

Clauses 216 to 218 set out what the court could do if it was satisfied that a governance body is, or might be, acting in a way that could create a serious risk for the owners.

A certain proportion of owners, set out in clause 216(5), would need to make an application for the court to act. As introduced, clause 216(5) would require an application to be made either by 15 owners or by owners who collectively hold 5 percent of the land. We recommend amending this provision so that it would require an application to be made by 15 owners who collectively hold 5 percent of the land.

Clause 218 deals with what the court may do after making an order under clause 216(2) or investigating a governance body. (Such orders may include requiring kaitiaki or officers of a governance body to file a report, provide certain documents, or appear before the court to answer questions.) However, the bill as introduced does not provide for any specific remedies if these things are not done. We recommend inserting subclause (3) to allow the court to make an order to start the process of cancelling a governance agreement; to make a restraining order to prevent a governance body, kaitiaki, or owner from engaging in conduct that would contravene the governance agreement; or to disqualify a kaitiaki.

Part 7—Administration of estates

Part 7 sets out provisions about who is entitled to Māori freehold land or an individual freehold interest in a parcel of Māori freehold land when the owner dies without leaving a will. It also sets out how the estate is to be administered.

Restrictions relating to family protection legislation

Clause 245 would continue existing restrictions under the Family Protection Act 1955 regarding who can receive interests in Māori freehold land. We consider that the basis for subclause 245(5) is out of date and inconsistent with modern law regarding marriages between Māori and non-Māori. We recommend that this subclause be changed so that pre-1952 customary marriages of mixed race are recognised.

Succession by eligible beneficiaries when owner dies intestate

Clauses 246 to 254 would change the way interests in Māori freehold land are inherited when an owner dies without leaving a will.

We propose an amendment in clause 246 regarding succession arrangements to correct an unintended oversight in the way the bill was formulated. We propose that all generations descended from great grandparents (rather than simply grandparents, as stated in the bill as introduced) would be eligible successors. As introduced, clause 246(3)(e) would not achieve the policy intention, as it does not go back far enough when determining eligible beneficiaries. We recommend amending this clause so that all generations descended from great grandparents would be eligible successors.

New clause 246A would simply restructure the previous clause, for clarity.

Whānau trusts established on intestacy

To address problems of fragmentation of Māori freehold land holdings, the bill would make whānau trusts the default outcome if an owner dies without leaving a will. There is provision for families or family members to opt out of a trust and succeed individually. This would either be by agreement or, if agreement could not be reached even after dispute resolution, by applying to the Māori Land Court.

We recommend some amendments in clause 254 to set out the provisions relating to whānau trusts more clearly. For example, the beneficiaries of a whānau trust would need to appoint trustees, or the court would do so for them. Also, the declaration of trust would need to include a prohibition on the trustees disposing of the interest in the land unless the court had authorised them to do so.

We also recommend inserting clause 254A to allow a whānau trust to be combined with an existing whānau trust if they shared the same group of beneficiaries.

Part 8—Registers, jurisdiction about land, giving of notices, and other provisions

Part 8 of the bill contains provisions about registers and regulations, and various other matters. Apart from the following, the amendments we propose in this Part are mostly minor and technical.

Jurisdiction of the Māori Land Court

Clause 300 sets out the court’s jurisdiction for the purposes of Parts 1 to 9. We recommend rewording the beginning of this clause to reflect the fact that the court also exercises jurisdiction under several other Acts. We also recommend amending subclause (1)(m) conferring jurisdiction to determine allegations of a breach of duty by a governance body; as introduced, this covers kaitiaki only.

We recommend inserting subclause (1)(s) to provide for the court to determine whether the tikanga of the whānau, hapū, or iwi would prevail in any particular situation.

Bankruptcy arrangements

Clause 318 would require the court to make an order vesting in the Official Assignee any beneficial interest of a person who is declared bankrupt whenever the Official Assignee applies for it. This carries over a provision of the 1993 Act. We recommend streamlining this process so that the court need not be involved; instead, the Official Assignee could register the interest by transmission. Similarly, a person could get the interest back by transmission after being discharged from bankruptcy.

Regulations and fees

Clause 326 would provide for the Governor-General, by Order in Council, to make regulations for a variety of purposes under Parts 1 to 9. This would include (subclause (k)) regulations prescribing charges or fees for services or other matters under Parts 1 to 9.

The amendments we propose in this clause are purely of a minor and technical nature. However, as the level of fees to be charged under this legislation was an important issue for submitters, particularly regarding charges for services to be offered by the Māori Land Service, we wish to offer some comment.

We note that work is still under way on developing the regulations, so the fees to be charged, including by the Māori Land Service, are not yet known. We consider it very important that people can readily access the services provided for under this legislation, so the level of fees must not be prohibitive.

We have considered the bill on the basis that Māori land owners’ ability to access services would be no less than it currently is, and that fees would not be set on a full cost-recovery basis. We understand that this is the Government’s intention, and that the business case for the Māori Land Service is being developed on this basis.

Part 9—Dispute resolution

The bill would establish a new Māori land dispute resolution service to help people and groups to resolve, between themselves, disagreements and conflicts in accordance with the tikanga, values, and kawa (protocols) of the hapū associated with the relevant land. In the case of a whānau dispute, the kawa of the whānau would apply.

The new process would entail a mix of mediation (where a kaitakawaenga would help the parties to resolve their issues by agreement) and arbitration (where, if they cannot reach agreement, the parties could agree to give the kaitakawaenga the ability to make a binding decision).

Submitters supported the proposed dispute resolution process, seeing it as empowering for those involved, and preferable to the current process of taking disputes through the court. Submitters want the process to be administered through the proposed Māori Land Service, and to be free of charge.

We recommend expanding clause 328, which sets out the purpose of the dispute-resolution provisions, to incorporate the bill’s core principle (from clause 3) that disputes involving Māori land should be managed in a manner that maintains or enhances the relationships among the owners and the members of their whānau and hapū.

This Part of the bill uses the term “mātauranga takawaenga”. It is defined in clause 329 to mean a process to assist people and groups to resolve disagreements and conflicts in a manner that accords, as far as possible, with the tikanga, values, and kawa of the hapū (or whānau, in the case of whānau disputes) that is associated with the relevant land. Submitters were not comfortable with the use of this term, and we recommend that it, and the term “kawa”, not be used. Instead, we propose the insertion of subclause 328(2) to describe the terms “relevant tikanga” and “values and protocols”.

We recommend some amendments in clauses 332 to 342 to improve and clarify aspects of the process. Among other things, these changes would ensure that proper consideration is given to matching the skills of kaitakawaenga to the nature of the particular disputes they are appointed to. They would also entitle representatives to be present when kaitakawaenga who have been given the ability to make a binding decision are discussing matters with parties. The amendment to clause 340 would require the chief executive to make publicly available any general instructions issued under that provision.

Parts 10 to 15—Provisions relating to Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court

Parts 10 to 15 of the bill would continue the Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court. As we have noted in our introduction, these parts of the bill would be enacted as a separate piece of legislation.

Most submitters agreed that the court, along with the appellate court, should remain a key institution for determining matters relating to Māori land. A few submitters opposed the court entirely, based on their negative experiences with it.

Submitters had mixed views on proposed changes to the role and jurisdiction of the court arising from Parts 1 to 9. Several expressed support for a change in the court’s role, from having final discretion over a range of decisions to one of ensuring that due process and legal requirements are complied with. However, some questioned whether the proposed changes would be a cost-effective approach. While supporting the idea of a new dispute-resolution service, they suggested that current problems with the court were largely a matter of inadequate resourcing.

Other than the change discussed below, we do not propose major amendments to Parts 10 to 15 of the bill.

Appointment of Judges

Clauses 427 and 428 deal with the appointment of Judges of the Māori Land Court. For clarity, we recommend amendments to clauses 427 and 428 to make it explicit that a Judge would be appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Minister for Māori Development, after consultation with the Attorney-General.

We consider that this change would address some concerns that the bill would transfer responsibility for recommending appointments away from the Minister to the Attorney-General. Clause 428 would merely give the Attorney-General responsibility for publishing the processes for judicial appointments. This is in line with a recent amendment to the 1993 Act, through the enactment of the Judicature Modernisation Bill, which will come into force on 1 March 2017.

Consequential changes are recommended in clauses 432, 434, and 435.

Part 16 (Repeals and amendments) and Schedules 1–12

Part 16 would repeal Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993; revoke and consequentially amend certain other enactments; amend three Acts in relation to the jurisdiction and functions of the Māori Land Court; and amend three Acts in relation to rating and valuation matters. We do not propose any major changes to this Part.

Mangatu adjustments

We note that clause 483, together with clause 484, would insert a new section 52A in the Rating Valuations Act 1998, giving local authorities the power to adjust the value of Māori freehold land for rating purposes. These “Mangatu adjustments”, as they are known, result from a decision by the Court of Appeal in the judgment known as the Mangatu case.

Schedules 1–12

The Schedules to the bill set out various matters including transitional provisions, procedural and process matters, and consequential amendments to other Acts. We recommend the following relatively minor changes.

In Schedule 1, we recommend inserting clause 12(4)(e) to make it clear that the Tuaropaki Trust would not become subject to the new governance body framework; instead, it would continue under the existing framework as provided in clause 23. The Tuaropaki Trust has unique features that the reforms are not intended to displace.

In Schedule 2, clause 12 deals with meetings of owners. We recommend amending subclause (1)(b) as we consider that the term “proxy” is more widely understood than “nominated representative”. We recommend deleting subclause (2) dealing with the quorum for a meeting; we consider it unnecessary given other provisions in the bill setting participation thresholds for decision-making by owners.

Minority View

This Minority View is submitted by the Labour, Green, and New Zealand First Parties.

When the bill was first introduced into the House we were led to believe that it would address the vexed problem of the under-utilisation of Māori land. We believe that the bill does not do this and in fact advances the removal of some responsibilities presently held by the Māori Land Court, to a new bureaucracy yet to be established. The bill also fails to address real impediments to Māori land development as raised by landowners at consultation hui around the country.

The receipt of submissions from a very broad range of people and entities involved in Māori land use and administration opposed to the bill including Māori Land Trusts (Tuaropaki), Māori Incorporations (Wakatū Incorporation), Whānau Trusts, Judges of the Māori Land Court, Māori Women’s Welfare League, Human Rights Commission, Ngāi Tahu Māori Law Centre, NZ Law Society, PSA representing Māori Land Court staff, Professor Richard Boast QC Kensington Swan Lawyers, and individuals gave us cause for disquiet about the bill.

Extracts from written submissions who opposed the bill stated;

  • Despite the Review Panel that gave rise to this bill being tasked with assessing the extent to which the regulatory environment is enabling or inhibiting the achievement of Māori land owner aspirations, the Panel chose to develop recommendations based on “what should the law look like” rather than “what is wrong with the current law and how should it be fixed.” – Māori Women’s Welfare League (paragraph 3.4, page 3).

  • The criticism towards the function of the Māori Land Court and the current Act as being primarily responsible for the lack of utilisation and development of Māori land is entirely incorrect, unreasonable, and not supported by sufficient research. – Ngāi Tahu Māori Law Centre (paragraph 5, page 1).

  • The bill in short is supposed to empower land owners to take more control of their land and enable the exercise of rangatiratanga. It has been our experience in reviewing the bill for the purpose of making these submissions that to fully understand the workings of the bill will require a huge investment of time and effort (of many months) and a great deal of expert knowledge. Even lawyers who specialise in the field of Māori land law find the bill something of a challenge to understand. – Prof Richard Boast QC, Deborah Edmunds, Tai Ahu and David Jones, Kensington Swan Lawyers (paragraph 3.4, page 3 and paragraph 4.1, page 4).

  • The bill provides no material benefit for the Tuaropaki Trust in either the delivery of services to beneficial owners or the development of its national and international commercial interests. The Tuaropaki Trust therefore seeks a specific exclusion clause in the bill allowing the Tuaropaki Trust to continue to be governed by its trust order under Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 (1993 Act) as if the 1993 Act has not been repealed. – Tuaropaki Trust (paragraphs 2 and 3, page 1).

  • Wakatū is also opposed to the bill because it adds limited to no value to existing and successful Māori incorporations. – Wakatū Incorporation (paragraphs 4 to 4i, page 2).

  • Given the Government’s human rights commitments as regards the implementation of UNDRIP (UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People), the bill should both reflect and advance its principles. In the Commission’s view, the application of the UNDRIP principle of free, prior, and informed consent reinforces the (Waitangi) Tribunal’s finding that the bill presently does not have a sufficient mandate amongst Māori. – NZ Human Rights Commission (paragraphs 23 and 24, page 8).

  • The bill is a high-risk approach to critical law reform affecting the taonga tuku iho that is Māori land. The bill will undermine existing Māori property rights. Key assumptions underpinning the bill are flawed. Aspects of the bill do not align with tikanga Māori. The bill mainstreams Māori Land and the Māori Land Court. – Judges of the Māori Land Court (page 2).

A supporter of the bill, the Federation of Māori Authorities, in their submission identified 37 problematic provisions in the bill and six gaps including succession applications suggesting that these should remain with the Māori Land Court. They also commented on the ‘untested and as yet undefined’ role of the Māori Land Service. They further commented that the bill did not address the ‘real impediments’ for land utilisation, commonly referred by officials as the ‘enablers’ and that it should. We agree.

We are concerned that the complexities of the bill will not empower landowners as intended. We believe that these complexities will have the unintended effect of disenfranchising landowners, particularly those holding small shares and those living away from home or whose whereabouts is not known. The bill is prefaced on a range of assumptions taken without any evidence based research and fails to address impediments as identified by landowners at the consultation meetings.

Major Māori Land Tenure reform

This is the first significant review of the Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993. From the outset the policy objective has been to prioritise the utilisation of undeveloped Māori land, streamlining the consolidation of owner interests and governance decision-making processes and structures.

The initial objections raised by us at the first reading highlighted the incredibly poor process in bringing these amendments which include the lack of broad based support for the changes, the potential impact on small land owners that could disenfranchise their interest in whenua tūpuna (ancestral land), the lack of clarity and purpose of the Māori Land Service, the loss of institutional knowledge from the Māori Land Court, the shift in emphasis from protection, and development towards retention and utilisation.

We maintain that the significance of the proposed changes should uphold the principles of protection, whakapapa connection to Māori land, ahi-kaa, improved access to land-locked parcels of Māori land, improved governance support for Māori owners, improving current offer-back provisions of the Public Works Act, and addressing the rating and valuation of Māori land to improve its utilisation potential.

To a significant extent several of these issues have not been included as critical ‘fixes’ in the bill. Several of these matters have been deferred to ‘enabler’ workstreams and there has been insufficient evidence to demonstrate the level of priority to achieve the level of progress that landowners have highlighted throughout the consultation process.

Māori Land Service

Integral to achieving the objectives of this bill will be the creation of the new Māori Land Service which is currently in the wānanga design phase of the process. We are aware that a business case is being prepared for the establishment of the Māori Land Service. At this stage the case for its viability is unknown. We consider this work-stream as fundamental to addressing the core improvements to the existing process of supporting landowners, addressing matters of succession, creating new governance structures, improving the efficiency of administrative functions, and establishing a new disputes resolution service and drawing on tikanga Māori as a guiding set of values. However, we are concerned that the lack of a confirmed and budgeted business case, a transitional implementation plan, targets to achieve objectives in a timely manner, and a risk-management profile to mitigate against any unforeseen matters to aid confidence that a successful implementation can be achieved.

We believe greater emphasis should be given to support the operative intention of the proposed Māori Land Service within the Māori Land Court immediately. This would deliver greater value to those landowners who do not currently have governance arrangements and judicial involvement in the dispute resolution provisions.

Participating Owners’ Models and decision-making thresholds

We are concerned that provisions relating to the Participating Owners’ Model and decision-making thresholds are complex and confusing. The issue here is two-fold:

  1. whether the definition of ‘participating owner’ and decision-making thresholds creates an imbalance between owners
  2. whether the proposed changes will assist non-engaged landowners to organise and participate in decision-making regarding the governance, leasing, disposition, gifting of their lands, or whether these responsibilities preference larger groupings of interests and the consolidation of a corporate rather than a whānau-based model.

We believe that insufficient information has been provided to clarify the costs and potential fee setting associated with the bill. We believe that the importance of cost or fee thresholds should not prohibit access to landowners. We are uncertain that the issue of costs associated with the Māori Land Service delivery model has been fully considered and this is an implementation risk. While we were informed of the benefit of a data platform to improve the sharing and utilisation of information by the Māori Land Service, there was no detail on this project. We were informed that the proposed information data platform is currently led by Land Information New Zealand and will require a significant budget commitment and is yet to be confirmed by the Government.

Whāngai, Rangatiratanga, and other Tikanga Māori concepts

We agree in principle with the approach of retaining land within whānau and hapū who whakapapa to the whenua and the clarification of rights to whāngai in accordance with tikanga. However, we believe that this can be achieved by a simple amendment to the 1993 Act.

There are a number of roles created to support and assist whānau with their whenua. Given that the bill is about empowering whānau and rangatiratanga it could be argued that some of these roles may be too parochial in that arguably it delegates authority to another ‘body’. These roles include that of kaiwhakarite, kaitiaki, kaiwhakamarumaru, concepts not necessarily common to some Māori.

We heard from a number of Māori Incorporations, Ahu Whenua, and Māori Trusts who have been successful under the current Act. These same organisations are functioning in a manner that allows them to proceed with their aspirations under existing trust orders or in accordance with their trust deeds. By seeking to retain that approach, we recognise that rangatiratanga can be achieved under the current Act.

They argued for amendments to the existing legislation rather than wholesale reform to the principles of the Act and we agree with that approach.

Resource Management Act 1991 and the Local Government (Rating) Act 2002

We heard the objective of the bill to accord rangatiratanga to “owners” is significantly reliant on the above Acts. We note territorial and regional councils control the use of Māori land with ratings policy of Māori land the responsibility of individual councils. We would suggest exploring the viability of a National Policy Statement for the Rating of Māori Land.

Our concerns are further heightened by the fact that the Government is currently reforming both Acts and we have received no advice on the possible implication of those reforms on the bill.

Disestablishment of managerial positions within the Māori Land Court

Submitters raised the concerns of the wealth of knowledge and experience of Māori whenua whakapapa and administration that currently resides with managers within the Māori Land Court. Due to the recent job losses announced by the Ministry of Justice we sought assurances from officials that the pending losses of capability with the disestablishment of these managerial roles within the Māori Land Court, across the country, would not adversely impact on the proposed Māori Land Service. We were given those assurances. We do not share that view. Our preference would be to defer any job losses until the proposed Māori Land Service is fully operationalised.

Committee process

We note with regret that some written submissions were not available online in a timely manner; an analysis of where submitters wished to appear was not completed; nor the expertise of committee members utilised to ensure hearing venues for those who wished to appear were appropriate; some submitters did not appear who were down to appear and some who wished to appear were not down to appear. Timing for each submitter was not clearly spelt out from the outset causing some confusion for both submitters and the committee members.

Given the substantive changes to the bill since the hearing of submissions, we feel strongly that submitters should be given an opportunity to review the changes to the bill. The latest updated version of the bill has gone through numerous changes and the select committee would have benefitted from the submitters’ feedback as to the implications of those changes against the concerns they raised.

We further note that the ability for Māori freehold land to be confiscated under the Public Works Act remains and is not addressed in this bill, despite it being raised by many submitters throughout the consultation process.

The number one priority of any Māori land reform should be to protect the small amount of land that remains in Māori ownership from further loss and alienation.

Summary

From the reasons outlined above we believe the bill falls short of its intended objective to improve Māori land utilisation by creating an ‘owner led’ operating environment. Instead it reduces the powers of the Māori Land Court and moves to establish the proposed Māori Land Service. A new entity that has not been defined, budgeted for, or tested. It creates an unequal balance between owners through the ‘participating owners’ decision making thresholds’ that can potentially lead to further alienation and has failed to address Māori land development impediments (landlocked land, paper roads, land taken under the Public Works Act, and ratings) as raised by owners throughout the consultation process. The bill has gone through numerous changes, is dense, and complex to follow. Seeking views from submitters on these changes would have provided a useful set of ‘fresh’ eyes for the select committee in determining whether the bill meets its original objective.

For these considered reasons we cannot support the bill and recommend it not proceed at this time.

Appendix

Committee process

Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill was referred to the committee on 11 May 2016. The closing date for submissions was 14 July 2016. We received and considered 152 submissions from interested groups and individuals. We heard oral evidence from 47 submitters at hearings in Gisborne, Tauranga, Canterbury, and Auckland, as well as in Wellington.

We received advice from Te Puni Kōkiri and Land Information New Zealand.

Committee membership

Tutehounuku Korako (Chairperson)

Hon Chester Borrows

Marama Davidson

Kelvin Davis

Marama Fox

Joanne Hayes

Hon Nanaia Mahuta

Pita Paraone